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Home arrow newsitems arrow ICHR+CoE Book+EFJ Head Gutierrez to E: Be Journalist is Not have a Card,but practice Good Journalism

ICHR+CoE Book+EFJ Head Gutierrez to E: Be Journalist is Not have a Card,but practice Good Journalism

Written by ACM
Wednesday, 14 October 2015
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*Strasbourg/CoE/Angelo Marcopolo/- For the European Federation of Journalists' Secretary General, Ricardo Gutierrez, speaking to "EuroFora" after an Interesting Debate at CoE's PanEuropean/International, 2 Days-long, Conference on "Press Freedom and Democracy", a real Journalist is not an individual who holds a "Press Card", but a Person engaged in Practicing Good Journalism and who respects main Principles of Press Deontology, as he stressed, in substance, in Reply to our Question, after  various Media-Experienced Experts, Officials, Press NGOs, Journalists, etc, had tjust taken the Initiative to Highlight that issue's current actuality.


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    + By a significant, Symbolic Coincidence, e was speaking, almost at the Eve of the 30th Anniversary of the Official Proclamation, by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, as early as, already back since 1985, that, at the Modern Era of PC, Internet and other Huge Socio-Political Changes, the very Notion of "Journalist" must be revived and Re-Defined anew, in a much more Substantial way than in the Past, (See Infra).


    ++ Moeover, Gutierrez main View appears Strongly Supported, and Further Developed, also by a Landmark, comprehensive Article, just Published at the Latest CoE's Book on "Journalism at Risk" (ed. October 2015), by the Experienced Director of Ethical News Network, and famous long-time Secretary General of the International Federation of Journalists, Aisan White, (who had already spoken with "EuroFora" on this issue, as early as since at least 2010 : See also Infra).


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    - Ricardo Gutierrez, who already holds a Solid Experience from "the Written Press", after having "Worked during 23 Years for the (Belgian, French Speaking) Newspaper "Le Soir" mainly "in Brussels", spoke to "EuroFora" in the framework of a larger Interview on "Freedom of Expression and Democracy", (See : http://www.eurofora.net/newsflashes/news/unfreespeechrapporteurkayaonrisksofbillsonradicalism.html )


    Invited by "EuroFora" to react on some Interesting Interventions made Earlier, during CoE's Interational Conference on Freedom of Expression and Democracy Debates, f.ex. from a Latvian Expert, mainstream Member of CoE's Commitee on New Media and Information Society, who even cited a landmark, Historic Decision of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, (See Infra), but also UNO's Rapporteur on Freedom of Expression, Dr. David Kaya, etc, EFJ's Seretary General appeared quite Positive, even if he approached the main Issue progressively ;


    - At First, indeed, Gutierrez simply Noted the Fact, as a matte of General Principle,  that "the Potential (of Freedom of Expression) should not be Focuse only on (Traditional) Journalists, but Everyone should be Protected, in fact, any Writer, we are OK about it", he agreed.


    + Further on, Gutierrez became more Specific, when "EuroFora" reminded in some more concrete detail the main thrust of the IACHR's Historic Legal Opinion on the very Definition of Journalism (See Infra), as well as the recent Fact that, f.ex., during the latest Deadly Massacte by ISIL's Extreme Islamic Terrorist BeHeaders, of a manly pro-Kurdish Popular Demonstration for Peace in Ankara, where Bombs had atrciously Killed or seriously Wounded Dozens of Civilian People, the only one to manage to have and publish a unique Video shpwing the Events, was a Non-Traditional Media using an On Line Website, which, even if it might have Acted as a Real Journalist and Considered itself to be a Normal "Media" like others, nevertheless, obviously had Not yet any Formal Recognition by the Turkish Authorities, equivalent to that of Traditional Journalists of the Old Establishment, and, therefore, could be Exposed to Dangerous Risks : In this case, f.ex., even of its Reporter's Life and/or Physical Integrity, since he/she obviously Risked to be Wounded or Killed by the 2 Bomb Explosions that he/she Filmd, even without having any worthy mentioning Legal Protection, equivalent to Traditional Journalists, who found and used, afterwards, that Unique VideoNews, while Comfortably Citting at their ArmChairs, at a Safe Office, quietly drinking their Coffee...


    - "The (only relevant) "Difference between a (Traditional) Professional Journalist and a (simple) Blogger is that the Journalist should follow some Ethical Rules", EFJ's Secretary General resumed from the outset, n Reply to "EuroFora"s above mentioned Question.


    - On the Contrary, "a (Simple) Citizen can Lie, why not ? Nobody would Blame hm for that. An (Political) Activist can Lie", while "a Journalist canNot. That's the (main) Difference",  Gutierrez underlined in particular.


    However, on this point, after "EuroFora" reminded Experienced Director of Ethical News Network, and former long-time International Federation of Journalist's Secretary General, Aidan White's recent Publications about Protecting alike Traditional Journalists of Old Media of the Establishment, and New Media Reporters who have Engaged themselves into Practicing Journalism in full Respect of main Press Deontology Principles, (See Infra, in extenso),    


    as well as the Scandalous Fact (partly Responsibe of the notorious Contempt that a Majority of People feel recently about Established, Old Medias, which hae Lost their Credibility in many Countries, both in Europe and in the USA, etc), that, often, some  Employees are given, by some obscure Bureaucrats, a so-called "Press Card", in fact, more on the basis of ... Fiscal Interests, (f.ex.to be Simply .. Paid by a Business named as "Media", and/or to empocket Most of their Money, each Month, from such a Business' payroll, etc), than according to the Content of what they are really doing in everyday Practice, (which might be, sometimes, even Ridiculously Irrelevant to real Journalism, f.ex. simple Secretariat or Technical job, a mere Copy and "Radio-TV Presentation" of Other Journalists' Original Work, etc), i.e. on Criteria of Real Journalism, such as Intellectual (i.e. Original and/or Investigative News Production), Sociological (f.ex. Risks Taken in order to Inform Society at large on Important Issues, otherwise Covered up), and Ethical, (i.e. Press Deontology, etc) Characteristics of what they are actually Producing on Important Topical Issues which Affect People's Lives and need, therefore, to be Clarified in a Pluralistic way for the General Interest of a Democratic Society, (i.e. near ECHR's well established case-law on Freedom of Expression which is the only relevant Human Right protected by the PanEuropean HR Convebntion's Article 10) :


    - "This is quite well known, I Agree with You" on this point.  - "That's why I also Agreed wit that (CoE's) Debate, on the Definition of Journalism, which has just taken place", inside the PanEuropean Organisation's 2 Days-long International Conference on Freedom of Expression and Democracy (See partly Infra), EFJ's experienced Head reacted Positively.


    => - "A Real Journalist is Not someone who has been given a "Press Card". It's a person who actualy Does a Good Journalism", in Real regular Practice, the Experienced Head of the European Federation of Journalists stressed in a Crystal-clear way.


    - In this regard, indeed, "there are several People who do Not hold a Press Card, but are actualy Practicing a real Journalism, who are Doing a Good Work of Journalist, Respecting the Principles" (of Press/Media Deontology), while, at the same time, there are also Some Holders of "Press Cards", who don't even Follow the Principles of Journalism, who are Not Ethical, who don't respect Press/Media Deontology", Gutierrez topicaly Denounced.


    >>>-  That's why, "for me, a Journalist is Not someone who holds a "(Press) Card". It's a Person who is engaged in Exercising that Craft, while taking into Consideration the Ethical Rules of that Work, and mainly its Deontological Rules", EFJ's Secretary General concluded in Reply to the above-mentioned "EuroFora"s Question.


     + "This is in line both with the Anglo-Saxon Vision" of Journalism and Media, wile also, "absolutely", Fitting "ECHR"s Case-Law", Ricardo Gutierrez noted in addition.


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A landmark Legal View officialy expressed by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights "Unanimously", on the Definition of Journalism :
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Meanwhile, indeed, CoE's Committee on Media and Information Society's Member from Latvia, (who Chaired the EU in the 1st Half of this Year, from January to June 2015), after participating as Expert in "last week's International Conference on "Ending Impunity for Crimes against Journalism", which took place "at the Headquarters of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights in Costa-Rica", ("in the Presence of the Inter-American Court's President, even of the African Court for Human Rights, only our ECHR's President was absent", as he noted), made an Astonishing observation, during CoE's debates  :


- In fact, "a Problem that we (EU and CoE) Face Today, had been Settled almost 30 Years ago", by "the Advisory Opinion No 5, of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, decided already since 1985" (i.e. almost at the Beginning of PC and Internet's spread in Modern Society) :


>>> - "Journalism canNot be Confined only to those who are formaly named as such", by one or another Traditional Bureaucratic body, under more or less Controversial Criteria, "But now extends", in Modern Society, "also to Other NewsReporters, according to that Pioneer Decision of a prestigious International Human Rights' Court.


=> - In Consequence, Today, an adequate "Re-Qualification was not only Desirable, but also Necessary !", he stressed.


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    Indeed, that Historic Decision, taken "Unanimously" by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights,  strongly Condemns, inter alia, any "Compulsory Licencing of Journalists", (f.ex. the Requirement of a so-called "Press Card" exclusively attributed only by a Corporatist or State body, as a Monopolistic "Association", etc, similar to that notoriously Restrictive and often Arbitrary System Abused by some in France, etc., and recently Decried by several Journalists who even ... "Burned their Card" inj Public !), because it found that it's clearly "Incompatible with the .....Convention on Human Rights".


    + Moreover, in the Same way, f.ex. a Law which claimed also to Restrict even the Notion of "Practicing Professional Journalist", Only to an individual  "for whom (the) work", of a "principal, regular or paid occupation ...to practice his profession in a Daily or Periodic Publication, or in Radio or Television News Media, or in a News Agency", (i.e. without even bothering to see at all what CONTENT should have this "occupation" - SIC !!!...), "represents his/her Principal source of Income", (i.e. precisely as some notorious Corporatist Systems try to impose as another Restriction), was also "Unanimously" Condemned as "Incompatible with the .... Convention on Human Rights", at this same landmark Decision of the IACHR.


    - Because such Controversial Measures "Deny" to the Victims, Excluded by those Restrictions, "Access to the Full Use of the News Media, as a Means of Expressing Opinions or Imparting Information" to the Public, as the Judges of that International Human Rights Court explicitly Denounced in Conclusion.


     - "Journalism canNot be equated to a Profession, that is merely granting a Service", f.ex. only "throught those who are Enrolled in a certain Professional "Colegio" (Corporation)", "because", in fact, "Journalism is the Primary and Principal Manifestation of Freedom of Expression of Thought, .... which is an Inherent Right" of a person, "and has a Double Dimension  : Individual and Collective", including Both "the Right of an Individual to Express himself Freely, AND that of Society as a whole  to Receive Information", so that any "Violation" of that, Threatens also "to Deprive Society of possible Sources of Information", affecting "a CornerStone upon which the very Existence of a Democratic Society rests", since "it's Indispensable for the Formation of Public Opinion", and "a Condition sine qua non for the Development of Political Parties, Trade Unions", etc., and "the Means that Enable the Community, when Exercising its Options, to be Sufficiently Informed", given the Fact that "a Society that is Not Well Informed, is Not a Society that is Truly Free".


              +  That's why, the very "concept of Public Order in a Democratic Society, requires the Guarantee of the Widest possible Circulation of News, Ideas and Opinions, as well as the Widest Access to Information by Society as a Whole", and "is not conceivable without Free Debate, and the possibility for Dissenting Voices to be Heard", since, f.ex. in Europe, the very "Purpose of ... the Convention" on Human Rights "was .. to establish a Common Public Order, of the Free Democracies of Europe, .... Safeguarding their common Heritage of Political Traditions, Ideals, Freedom and the Rule of Law", as the IACHR furhermore observed.


    => In consequence, "Journalism is the Primary and Principal Manifestation of Freedom of Expression", and "the Thing that Journalists do, involves, precisely, the Seeking, Receiving and Imparting  of Information", since "the PRACTICE OF JOURNALISM ...Requires a Person to ENGAGE (Him/Herself) in Activities that define or embrace the Freedom of Expression", so that "the Professional Journalist is not, nor can he be, anything else, but Someone who has Decided to Exercice Freedom of Expression in a Continuous, Regular" way.  As for "the Circumstance, Whethern, or Not, that Right is Exercised as a Paid Profession, canNot be deemed Legitimate in Determining whether (a) Restriction" might be acceptable, since "that's Not a good enough Reason to Deprive Society of possible Sources of Information". "Unlike Journalism", "the practice of Law or Medicine, that is to say, the Things that Lawyers or Physicians do, is Not an Activity Specifically Guaranteed by the Convention" on Human Rights, and, therefore, it could be Restricted,  for "Reasons ... that May... Justify Compulsory Licencing of Other Professions", but canNot be invoked in the case of Journalism, because .... this could Violate the Basic Principles of a Democratic Public Order", (Comp. Supra), IACHR Distinguished.


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CoE publishes "Journalism at Risk" Book : 

- Big Challenges pushing to a ReNaissance ?

+ A landmark Article by Aidan White

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    The main thrust of such a Move was, by a Timely coincidence, reminded, reVitalized and Further Developed in an Interesting Book just Published by the CoE, in October 2015, and promoted these Days, on the occasion of this Week's PanEuropean/International Conference on Freedom of Expression, under the Heading of "Journalism at Risk"  : "Threats, Challenges and Perspectives", which mainly aims to "Tackle the Threats" that "Journalism faces Today f.ex. by "Censorship, Political Pressure, Intimidation, Job Insecurity, Attacks on the Protection of Sources", and other, "many Differend Challengfes" and "Issues surrounding the Role of Journalism in Democratic Societies" of our Modern era, particularly "when High-Quality, Independent Journalism is More Necessary than ever", according to the Official presentation by CoE's editors themselves.


    Inside it, among 10 Contributions from various Media Experts, including an Introduction by the PanEuropean Commissioner for Human Rights, Nils Muiznieks, (Comp. other, recent Muiznieks' Topical Statements to "EuroFora", earlier this week, f.ex. at : .....), CoE's New Book on "Journalism at Risk", includes also a landmark, long Contribution by Experienced Aidan White, currently Director of the "Ethical Journalism Network", and World-Famous former long-time Secretary General of the Brussels' based "International Federation of Journalists, during more than 24 Years, as well as Founder of the "European Association of Journalists", one of the Biggest and more Active in the World.


     Titled : "Ethical Journalism : Inspiration for a Responsible Communication in Europe", this Aidan White's Article advances towards an Interesting Direction, at which "EuroFora" had already pointed, and briefly but topicaly Discussed both wih himself and other key personalities of the World of Media in Europe, particularly during the first Collective "Sittings of Journalism", organized together with main Press Associations, Editors, Journalists, Experts, Politicians, etc, initialy at the PanEuropean CoE in Strasbourg, as early as already since back on 2009 and 2010, etc.


    It was mainly about Today's Need to clearly ReDefine Real "Journalism", by partly New and More Substantial Criteria, which go directly into the Heart of the Matter, the Specific and more Noble, Social Function and Mission of Real Journalists, without limiting that, no more, only to some Old, Bureaucratic, Formal and Inadequate Criteria, which had become Inadequate in Modern Society, and linked with a well-known "Crisis" of Traditional Media throughout the Wold, both Economicaly, but mostly by grossly Failing to keep the Trust of the People in nowadays Democracies, where most Traditional Journalists are now notoriously considered to be Corrupted, Stupid, Misleading, and/or Subordinated Lackeys of an Anti-Democratic Establishment, full of Manipulation and Deceipt, which Today Hinders Modern Citizens' adequate Information, and has also become largely Useless, given also the New Technological possibilities for Free Access to News Reading and/or Making, as well as the generaly Higher Educational level of many Citizens than what it used to be in a Remote Past.


    In fact, it's also, at least partly, about the Need to ReVive the Original Spirit of Pioneer and Noble Journalism of Good Old Times, Bypassing a Notorious and Dangerously Anti-Democratic and Counter-Productive Decline, which has led to a scandalous Waste, Manipulative and often even Oppressive Misbehavior, while also trying to Explore and Seiize the Huge, untapped yet, Potential that a Creative and Productive use of New Communication and Information Technologies of the Modern Era have made Possible, for the First Time in History, mainly by remplacing Gutenberg's Printing Machine, with nowadays InterConnected Electronic Networks.


    In this regard, a Real Journalist, deserving at least an elementary Protection of basic Freedoms, particularly nowadays, is no more someone who simply gets, or not, a so-called"Card" by a Few Bureaucrats, mainly attesting that he/she would be Subordinated to an "Owner" of a Printing Machine Business Conglomerate, which might be still called, according to Old Criteria "a Press Company", and more or less Paid with the Money of exclusively that "Boss", mostly Regardless  of what he/she really does in fact. But, on the Contrary, a Person who is Defined mainly by the Content and the Quality of his/her Regular Activity, Dedicated into Searching, Finding, Elaborating and Presenting to the Public Original Informations about New Developments which may seriously affect People's Lives and the General Interest of the Society at large, in a way which strives to really and voluntarily Respect at least the elementary Principles of an Independent, Transparent, Fact-based Truthfulness, Investigative, Serious, Substantial and Fair "Press Deontology". (Among many others, Comp., f.ex. also : http://www.eurofora.net/deontology.html ; http://www.eurofora.net/newsflashes/news/digitalpress.html ; http://www.eurofora.net/brief/brief/webmedia.html ; http://www.eurofora.net/newsflashes/news/pflimlinmitterrand.html ; http://www.eurofora.net/newsflashes/news/coehumanrightscommissioneronwebmedia.html , etc).


    In other Words, to put it in a nutshell, (by using some well known and Inspiring references from the European and even World-wide Classic Civilisation), such Real Journalists are much more Motivated by the Noble Passion of a "Prometheas"-like Spirit, resolutely dedicated into Finding and Bringing the "Fire of Knowledge" to the People, even at the Risk of their own Freedom and/or Well-Being, as also by that of a Marathon Victory's "Aggelos" (i.e. a Messenger serving to Anounce Important News), who may even Sacrifice his/her own Life in order to Timely Bring to the People a Message of Vital and Urgent Importance for all, (f.ex. that an Ennemy Army is approaching and that they must Protect themselves Fast in the Acropolis' Castle, according to the Famous events of Ancient History). It would certainly be possible, and perhaps even better Illustrated, if we added some Equivalent Images f.ex. from Jules Vernes' Books, and/or other Writers.


    On the Contrary, at any case, in this sense, a Real Journalist is Certainly NOT someone like a ... Clerk of a Shop owned by a Corrupted Trader, or a Lackey of some Unscrupulous Politician searching to Manipulate People in order to get Elected by Treaching, Neither a Bore repeating banal Copies of Others' recipes on how to make People fall Asleep, and Never a mere Cynical Liar Aggressing other People in order to Harm them for some Obscure, Dark and Selfish Interests, (whatever Money he/she might have been promissed to be paid by a Thug, ...to say it harshly, but clearly).


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    - All this Fits quite well with the Fact described by Aidan White, in his above mentioned Article in the latest CoE's Book, (Comp. Supra), as, f.ex., the existence, Nowadays, of "Increasing Calls, from within Media, for a Fresh and InVigorated Vision of Journalism's Future, Based upon ReVival of the Spirit of Mission and Values". Because, he is Convinced that, at any case, "the Future of Journalism ...will Depend on its Ability to Serve the Public Interest, and to nourishthe Ethical framework in which a News is Reported"; (See : "Journalism at Risk", p. 200 and 220).


    + F.ex., in this regard, among various other concrete Cases, White cites that of even "one of Britain's Leading Political Journalists, (who) Dramaticaly and very publicly Quit his Job", "Accusing the Management of Censoring Stories", (f.ex. "about (a) Bank -leading Advertiser of the Newspaper- which was Caught up in a .. Scandal). Tellingly, be Broke the Story on a current affairs News Website" ! (Ibid, p. 208).


    A recent "Report" on "Untold Stories" yet, about "How Corruption and Conflicts of Interests Stalk the NewsRoom", "covering 18 Countries", and "Launched on March 2015" by "The Ethical Journalism Network", following the above mentioned affair, "Opened up a Debate about these Problems", including, f.ex., how Traditional "Business Models .. based on Good Journalism", were "Undermined", Contrary to "Those who see Media as a route to Profit or Political Influence", with plenty of "Dark Arts... everywhere", "Deals with Advertisers to carry Paid-for material Disguised as Honest News", "Reporters accepting Bribes", "Hidden ... Dodgy Practices", "Betrayal of Ethical Principles", "News Media Overwhelmed by Political and Corporate Interest groups", "Irregular Payments", "a Culture of Dependence on Political and Corporate <<Friends>>, that makes it increasingly Difficult to Separate Journalism from Propaganda, and Impartial Reporting from <<Public Relations>>", etc. "Although the Major Threats come from Outside Media, with (some) Governments, Unscrupulous Politicians,", etc, neverheless, "also ...many of Today's Media Owners ...Buy into Journalism ..mostly to Promote their Own Businesses and Political Agenda", so that "Journalism is Compromised by Politicians and Owners", particularly there "where Media are on the Front Line of Tough Political Battles", (f.ex. on "Turkey", etc), while, f.ex. "in Ukraine, the practice of Paid-for Journalists is a tool Routinely Used by Politicians at Election Time", as that International Report found.


    => In such conditions, "the Weakening of Public Trust to Journalism", was obviously an unavoidable "Consequence"...  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     >>> - In order "to Build Public Confidence, Journalism must Connect with its Audience, and Make itself Accountable" for any eventual "Mistakes", i.e. "Journalists should embrace Self-Regulation, as a way of Strengthening the Work they do", Urges Aidan White, (ibid. p. 204). + More Widely, for all the above-mentioned reasons, (Comp. Supra), - "Creating New Structures .... and Focusing on Quality (of Content),  can Inspire the New .... Journalists, .... Committed to Values, ... to Enhance and Strengthen Journalism and Media Content", while also  tackling "the Ethical Challenges" which "emerge" from the "Creation of such a New Broad Movement", he rightfuly Hopes, (ibid. p. 203).


    - Because, meanwhile, in fact, "Journalism has become a More Open Profession", thanks to New Communication Technologies and other Socio-Political Developments. "These Developments are Encouraging Signs of a Move Towards a Fresh Vision for Journalism, accross Europe", and probably the World, also encouraged by several "Initiatives to ... Support for (what could be Named as) Public Interest Journalist".


    - "In Today's Media environment there is Much Debate about Who is a Journalist, and, therefore,... entitled to the Protections that should be Granted to People carrying out Journalistic Work, such as Protection of Sources, ... Pubic Interest Questions", etc. "This is an Important Question, and by No means Academic",  observes the Experienced Aidan White on October 2015, i.e.by an extraordinary coincidence, at the ..30th Anniversary of that Historic Inter-American Court of Human Rights' Decision of 1985 (almost at the Beginning of PC's and Internet's spread, etc), which described as Journalists those who have Decided to Dedicate themselves in Engaging to a Continuous and Regular Practice of Journalism, i.e. into Seeking, Receiving and Imparting Information about News in order to Express themselves and Inform the Public at large about Issues of General Interest for the whole Society, (Comp. Supra).


    >>> - "Increasingly, the Term "Journalist" is used to include All those who Regularly Engage in Collecting and Disseminating Information to the Public, with a Journalistic purpose", i.e. "People ... who (even if they are "Not Members of a professional body", and/or "Not Employed by a Media", etc, nevertheless) "commit what might be Called <<Acts of Journalism>>", White underlines, in this regard.


    - "Traditionaly, Journalists had been Defined (merely) according to their Employment by a Media Organisation", (i.e. Not by the Content, the Method, nor the Aim of their Productive Activities) , "by Affiliation to a" Trade "Union", or by completion of" a Specific "Training", as a kind of "Craft, with 2 Personalities : The ...Workers, in .. Employment as Part of a Media Brand, Working in a Team Dedicated to a Mission Defined by an Owner (of Media Equipments) or Management", Reminded White.


    + "EuroFora", as any careful reader, can, obviously, note, here, also the fundamental Fact that, while Back in the Past of Gutemberg's Printing Machines, all NewsMedia needed a Capitalist with enough Money to Buy an efficient Printing Machine, large Quantities of Printing Materials (i.e. Paper, Ink, etc), a Big Building to keep all that inside, and able to Pay also for the Necessary, then, Physical Transport of many Printed NewsPapers, for their Stockage and Offer to Distribution in various places, as well as to Care for the Massive Return of Non-Sold Copies, etc, so that any NewsMedia Worker was Inevitably Subordinated to "an Owner" of such Means of Production, the Use of which was, indeed,  "Defined" exclusively by that "Owner" and/or "Management", (as White pointed out), on the Contrary, Today, in the Modern Societies of Widely Developed Internet Networks, and more and more Powerful Digital Personal Computers, Tablets, SmartPhones, etc., naturaly, that Old Division became Obsolete, and those 2 Last Roles, often Useless, if not Parasitic and, in fact, even Counter-Productive, since any really "Skilled and Creative Workers" can, from Now on, Produce and Disseminate NewsMedia Informations withOut Needing at all, No More, the InterMediation of those supplementary personas, who have become, more or less superfluous, unnecessary, ByPassed and Historicaly Condemned by the very Progress of New Communication and Information Technologies, which allow to Modern Journalists to Search and Find, Design and Publish, as well as Disseminate to the Public the Results of their own Work, withOut needing, no more, anyone among those Old, seless and Costly Intermediaries, (and, in Consequence, also None among those above mentioned Relations of a Past which has Vanished or became Redudant, (Except, perhaps, for Coordinated NewsMedia Work, f.ex. specialy for Global Press Agencies, unless they use, innovate and develop further the Original Idea of the "Associated Press", which has notoriously been Destroyed by the Old System)...


    In other words, as also another Writer, Contributing in that Same COE's Book about "Journalism at Risk", Eugenia Siapera, from Dublin University's School of Communications, puts it : - At one stage in History, the Pioneers' '"Pure News", or "Literaly Journalism" of "the Men of Letters", when, often, "until the 19th Century, Newspapers were mainly <<One-Man-Bands>>" (Sic !), with the Cost of Founding f.ex. a Weekly staying still at about 690 £, had been Replaced, later-on, by "Traditional Industrial Journalism", where, for the First Time, "Journalists operated as Waged Labourers",  and "an Hierachical Model of Organisation of Journalistic Work" was imposed, together with "Fragmentation" and "Division", particularly between "Conception" and "Execution", etc, which strived to "Apply the Labour Model of Work to Journalism", resulting in Lowering its original Standards and Quality, while also Skiping the Focus from "Pure News' Content" (Comp. Supra),  to attempts to Affect or even Manipulate Public Opinion by a kind of Mass "Dealers of Public Opinion", etc, (i.e., obviously approaching the recently Denounced Corruption, Untrustworthiness, Lack of Independence, etc. that Aidan White Denounced in his own Paper: Comp. Supra).


    But, nowadays "Digital Journalism", may "Drasticaly Change" that situation, inter alia, including by the emergence, f.ex. of "a Multi-Skilled, Multimedia Professional", a "BackPack" Journalist, able to "Produce News through the Equipment in his/her Backup", the notorious Failure of "Pay per View" News at the era of Internet, Social Media, Twitter, etc., and of People Committed to "Open Journalism" at the Web, a Growing Debate between "Enterpreneurial Journalism" and "Public Interest Journalism", (the Potential of Both having been unleashed by Extensions of the Web and of PCs/SmartPhones, etc), Faster "Fact-Checking" for Accuracy than in the Past, the Disappearance of Old "Time Deadlines", "Multi-Media, InterActivity, Connectivity and HyperTextuality", as well as "Users' Participation" and "Social Media"e (including Quality Forums, etc), may Change seriously the Way that Modern and Future Journalists would Produce News, both Individualy and Collectively, and Open some New Horizons for Journalism/News Publishing, which have not yet been Explored enough.


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    => In addition, according to Aidan White, "Many Now argue that ... who Publishes Information on Matters of Public Interest, in this Context (i.e. "Regularly Engaged" in that activity, which includes also "Searching" such Information, "with a Journalistic Purpose", etc : Comp. Supra), "should Benefit from the Protection and Legal Privileges given to ...Journalists, including Protection from Censorship and undue Interference, the Right to Publish in Safety and Security, and the Right to Protect the Confidentiality of Sources", etc. "The ... Intention to Publish in the Public Interest, and Attachment to -and Recognition of- certain Fundamental Ethical Values", (Comp. Supra), will become Increasingly Important to Ensuring that Legitimate Protection is provided to everyone who should be Entitled to it (Traditional, and Non-Traditional Journalists included) ... Acts of Journalism in Good Faith are Worthy of Protection", resumes White in Conclusion, on this key point.    


    In fact, "Ethical Journalim has Always been at the Heart of Notions of <<Professionalism>> in Media", and "has always been reflected in the creation of Codes of Conduct for Journalists" in various "forms of Self-Regulation" he added. Today, "Journalism covers an Information Community much Wider than the Traditional(y) ...recognized Media Professionals". Because "it can include" all those "Engaged in the Dissemination of Information in the Public Interest", so that "Journalism Combines Free Expression with a Commitment  to Professional and Ethical Standards". Moreover, "Journalism has a Public Purpose to provide, as Honestly and as Independendly, as possible, Accurate and Reliable Intelligence for the Communities it Serves".  (ibid, p 197)                 


    - '"What makes Journalism, and the Work of People from Traditional and Non-Traditional, Public Interest Communications, Distinct from (Simple) Free Expression", is "the Discovery of Truth", "In the Framework of Press Freedom" : And "the Core Importance of Press Freedom is that it is embedded in Discussion, in which Differend Opinions are not only Expressed, but also Tested in Open Debate", advanced further White, with an Interesting Insight.  Real "Journalism and Media" are "Guided by Core Ideals of Mission, and Aspiring to Standards and Values". This "Distinction is Increasingly Relevant in the Age of Social Networks and OnLine Communications" : "Journalism ... is  .. a Constrained Expression, Framed by the Ethics of Journalistic Mission : Truthfulness, Independence, Accountability, Fairness, and Respect for Others". I.e. "a Commitment to Voluntary Restraint, that is Not Commonly found accross the Modern Information Landscape, and Would Not be .. acknowledged (at all) by many Bloggers or Users of Social Networks", as he Clearly Distinguished.  


    => - "But, for (All Real) Journalists to be Able to exercice (that kind of) Self-Restraint (Comp. Supra), they Must be Allowed to Work Free from Pressure and Intimidation" : - "The Need for Creating a Secure, Pressure-Free Environment, is Essential", through the "Defence and Promotion of High-Standards of Human Rights" applicable to all of them, Aidan White stressed, (ibid, p. 198).


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    In conclusion, "EuroFora" is Grateful to CoE's Services which have Graciously given us Timely a Copy of that very Interesting and even much more Comprehensive, big New Book on "Journalism at Risk", Free of Charge, as for all actively interested Journalists, (which can also be Downloaded from the Internet, for  just 26 €, at : http://www.coe.int/documents/2323735/12210592/Journalism+at+risk.jpg/869aca32-040c-4b44-b9cf-d4e5ea2547fb?t=1443716150000

 

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(NDLR : Partly = Fast Translation from the Original in French)
 
 
("DraftNews", as already send to "EuroFora"'s Subscribers/Donors,, earlier. A more accurate, Full Final Version might be Published asap).
 
 
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Benedict's "Source" to revitalize Europe : - "The World needs Hope", Pope says, calling to relaunch E.U. via Human Rights !

Paris - Lourdes - Strasbourg : 12 - 17 September 2008.

The vital need to re-launch Europe can be succesfully met by defending fundamental Human Rights of the People, said Pope Benedict XVI in his 1st speech in France, at his meeting with President Nicolas Sarkozy, who currently chairs the EU.

Sarkozy replied by welcoming Christian and other religions' contribution to indispensable Public Debates on crucial issues which affect Human Dignity, Europe, even Humankind, as BioGenetics.

- "When Europeans will see and personally experience that the inalienable Rights of the Human Person .., those of their free Education, their Family life, their Work, ..their Religious Rights, ..are respected and promoted, then, these Europeans will fully understand the greatness of the European construction and will be actively involved in it", Benedict XVI stressed.

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- "It's important that during France's EU Presidency, there is, indeed, a desire for the Church to contribute to protect Human Person's integrity, and I think that there is also a growing Conscience, beyond any polemics, to defend Human Rights, and, thus, contribute to ensure respect for Human Dignity", added to "EuroFora" the Pope's Spokesman, Vatican's Press Director Federico Lombardi.

- "Nobody really told us here that Lisbon Treaty was good for this or that reason to the People. They only told us that we "had" to ratify it, and tried to scare us, but failed", said 2 Irish pilgrims to "EuroFora", after 2 Majority Abstentions in 1999 and 2004 EU Elections and 3 "NO" to Referenda in France and the Netherlands in 2005, followed by the Irish "No" in 2008, during a Decade of EU Crisis since the controversial Turkey EU- bid (1999-2008).

More than .."224 cases of Murders, Torture, "Disappearancies" or Destructions" by "agents of Turkish Security forces", where all those responsible for so heavy Crimes still remain scandalously unpunished, despite regular condemnations of Ankara by Strasbourg''s European Court of Human Rights from 1996 to 2008, were examined the same week by CoE's Ministers, who decided to launch a fresh call "urging" the Turkish Authorities to end this dangerous "virtual Impunity" of criminals, without comparison to European countries.

- "Why not Ukraine, instead of Turkey ?", asked EuroFora a Journalist from "Kiev : the city where it's enough to cross the streets in order to realize that it's a European town", as Sarkozy recently said, before solemnly declaring this week, together with Ukranian President Jushenko and EU Commission's chair Baroso, EU's "recognition that Ukraine is a fully European Country, linked to Europe by culture and History".

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Europe's "Christian roots" and Values, with "openess and mutual respect" to other cultures and beliefs, were highlighted by Sarkozy in harmony with Benedict XVI.

The Human person should be protected "from his inception until his natural death", added the Pope, faithful to BioEthic principles defended by his predecessor and collaborator, John Paul II, of topical importance in France, Europe and the World today, as Sarkozy announced :

- "Fast and important progres in Genetic Science and procreation raise delicate BioEthical Questions to our Democracies", which "involve our view of Humans and Life, and can lead to Social Mutations. That's why they cannot remain only a business of experts", hestressed.

- "It's Politician's responsibility to set a proper framework for such Public Debates", as "France will do on BioEthics in 2009". "Religious and Philosophic traditions must take part, with their ideas and centuries' long experience : A positive Laicity is an open invitation to Dialogue", he said.

- "France engaged in Europe at another Debate on how to make Financial Capitalism more moral", and the "Social doctrine of the Church fits well what is at stake in modern Globalized Economy"

- "But, a "Real Dialogue is not for an elite of a Globalized world : It penetrates deep into the People : That's why Churches should actively participate : .. It's bringing New Oxygen to Public Debates", stressed Sarkozy.

- "Democracy must not be cut off Reason", which is "compatible with Faith", thanks to "the meeting between Christianism and Greek philosophy ", he added, referring to Pope's views. "It means to advance with logic arguments, search what's best and respect common principles of thinking :... It's an everyday need for Public Administration and the Political Debate", he added.
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Pope Benedict's 1st visit to France looked like the start of a brillant, manifold demonstration that this was well-founded and could become true in the lives of the People : After its Theoretical foundations unfolded at a "speech to the world of Culture", inaugurating Bernadins' cultural centre, and its dogmatic instrument shaped at an address to the Clergy in the Historic Notre Dame' Cathedral, he started to resolutely reach out to the People :

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The move went upwards like Bach's music : Begining with a call to more than fifteen thousand enthousiastic Youngsters gathered at Notre Dame's parvis with overnight celebrations, it gained strength in an impressive open-air Mass at Paris'central Invalides'area facing Alexander III's bridge, attended by more than 150.000 people, French Prime Minister Fillon, many Ministers, Foreign Ambassadors, etc, and culminated in a series of pan-European Mega-meetings at Lourdes 150th anniversary, together with all French Bishops, EU Commission's vice-Chairman Barrot, and some 200.000 enthousiastic People from all over Europe and beyond : After a Sea of Lights astonishingly braved Saturday Night's rain, an open-air mass at riverside fields among Pyrenees' Mountains Sunday Morning, was followed on Monday by a Sea of "Compassion" to those facing Health or Life threats, surrounded by an endless gathering of People, whose gigantic dimensions obviously surprised the organisers..

Meanwhile, Benedict had the occasion to speak to the French Priests at Notre Dame of Paris, and with the Bishops at Lourdes, where they prepare a crucial November plenary meeting, due to take important decisions on imminent EU debates and choices about Europe's identity, BioEthics, etc.
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- "A new way of thinking about Laicity has become necessary", agreed the Pope with President Sarkozy at Elysee. While keeping the "distinction between Politics and Religion, to guarantee Citizens' Liberty", "religion is important for shaping Consciousness and contributing, together with others, to create a basic Ethical Consensus in society".

- "Searching Essential realities", (as "God" for christians), needs "Speech : "Logos" in greek, i.e. Reason", "able to shape a Community","with creative work transforming Human History". But "Dialogue" is instrumental for "Reason", because it's the way to "search" for Truth", in "Liberty", according to Greek Platonic Philosophy, with Socrates' dialectics. "Reason" implies "Spirit and Liberty", hence the polyphonic "Music" of "Dialogue", in a responsible, "well balanced" way, to avoid "destruction".

Starting with a "Dialogue between christians and intellectual or artistic movements" highlighted at Bernardins' Cultural Center. with former Presidents Chirac and Giscard d'Estain, UNESCO's chair Anastassopoulos, etc., as well as representatives of Muslim Communities, (including a separate Turkish), after contacts with Jews at Vatican's Embassy, the Pope turned towards the People :

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To French Priests : "Church built on the rock" !
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- Speaking to thousands of French Priests at Notre Dame's Cathedral, Benedict highlighted a solid "Church built on the Rock" of conscious and active persons, transmitting "a lively, energetic and sharp" "God's Speech, actively working on Human History".

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"Praying together" with "representatives of Christian Churches and ecclesiastic communities", (as Orthodoxes, Armenians, Protestants, etc), he called "to reinforce the Unity of the church", against "any form of Division", around Holy Spirit', "the Word","Christ's Justice", and "Love" to fellow- humans : Essentials which "resume all holy scripts", as he said.

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To Young People : "New Horizons"
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To some 15.000 enthousiastic Young People at Notre Dame's parvis, along Seine's river, Benedict spoke about "the Energy of the Holy Spirit" and "the Mystery of the Cross" : - "The Holy Spirit opens New Horizons to Human Intelligence .. and makes it conscious of the real greatness of Christ's sacrifice, dying and resurecting for World's life".

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Some "may slander you as crazy, laugh at you, or even persecute you. But, "the Holy Cross is a symbol of God's love", and "givesmoral strength" : "Witness of People's pains, it's at the same time, a precious, unique expression of their Hopes", he told them at Paris' dawn.

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Invalides' plateau : "People chosen to become God's friends"
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At the 1st open-air Mass in Paris' center area of Invalides, facing the Grand Palais, along the river Seine, during an impressive gathering of more than 150.000, French Prime Minister Fillon, Ministers Alliot-Marie, Bachelot, Dati, Jouyet, Assembly's President Accoyer, Senate's Chair Poncelet, former 1st Lady Bernadette Chirac, former Prime Minister Raffarin, many foreign Ambassadors, and other political personalities were present. (While earlier, from the Socialist opposition, Paris' Mayor Delanoye, artist Robert Hussein a.o. assisted at the Elysee meeting).

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But the "Entry Song" focused on the "People chosen to become God's Friends". The September 11 mass was Dedicated to "Saint Chrysostomus, that great priest of Constantinople", with his "wonderful eloquence and great courage to face challenges", who "made out of despaired and godless people, a people of brothers", opening a possibility to "become all one complete entity", as Pope Benedict reminded.

- "Reason never enters in real contradiction with Faith", stressed Pope Benedict, who prepared his speeches for France during a short Summer rest at Brixen/Bressanone's Seminar, whose Library honors both "Faith and Science".. - "We must use not only our Reason, but also our Faith" : "Get away from Idolatry", "cupidity", "avidity for money, power or even knowledge deviating from essential aims", and other "falses appearances". and "build your Home on the Rock", "with the force that Holy Spirit gives to those who let it act in them", he said to the People of Paris.

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Benedict at Lourdes : - "Become Light (even) in the Dark !"
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- "Our World needs Hope", stressed Pope Benedict, addressing an impressive TorchLight procession at Lourdes' sanctuaries, where a Sea of Lights held by Hundreds of Thousands of People gathered at Pyrenee's Mountains from all over Europe astonishingly kept their flames despite a heavy Rain at a windy Dark Night...

- "150 years earlier (1858 - 2008), ..here, in the cave, ... a simple young girl, Bernadette .. saw a Light". "The everyday life of her Family was, however, made of Misery, Sadness, Sickness, Misunderstandings, Rejection and Poverty... It was hard to live in Jail". Today, "we think to all Human Beings who suffer : The innocent Victims who face Violence, War, Terrorism, Hunger, Injustices, Catastrophes, Hate and Oppression, Violations of Human Dignity and of their fundamental Rights, of their Liberty to act and think. We also think to those who face Familial problems, sufferings from Unemployment, Sickness, Infirmity, Isolation, or their situation as Immigrants, without forgetting those who suffer and die for the name of Christ", he said.

- "But the Shadows of the Earth, did not hinder Sky's Light to shine : <<The Light shines in the Dark>>" ..."A Way full of Light opens in Human History even in its Darkest moments" : ..."As Night falls, Christ tels us : <<- Keep your Lamps alight !>>."Hold a Light while walking in the Night .. sums up our condition as Christians on their way : "We need light, and we are called to become Light !", Benedict stressed to People setting in motion Lights, Flags and Songs with enthousiasm.

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"<<- She looked at me as a Person, who speaks to another Person>>, the poor girl had noted."Light emerges from such a Dialogue", stressed the Pope : "A small Flame called Hope, Compassion and Tenderness dwells inside those who return after being moved by Lourdes' experience". "Christ .. entrusts us with the Mission to let the Light of Charity shine : To make of our Prayers an Act of Love to our brothers and to Fraternal Charity", he concluded.

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