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Home arrow newsitems arrow As "Post-Human" Risks grow, Prof. Mattei to EF: BioTech = as Nuclear Bomb +Global Issue for Humanity

As "Post-Human" Risks grow, Prof. Mattei to EF: BioTech = as Nuclear Bomb +Global Issue for Humanity

Written by ACM
Saturday, 04 February 2017
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*Strasbourg/Angelo Marcopolo/- While speculations are going on about whether New US President Don Trump will, or not, Reverse Dems' Obama's 1st Decision : to Spend Federal Funds for Genetic Manipulations of Human Embryos, (the "Stem Cell" Controversy), that he had taken as early as since March 2009, i.e. Cancelling Conservative GWBush's August 2001 opposit choice to Stop Wasting Money for such Dangerous Bio-Tech. chimeras, (without having, 8 Years Later, produced any Medical Cure Breakthrough, but Wasted Millions with only outcome a "Copy and Paste" Technic on Parts of Human Genome : See Infra), a crystal-clear Warning was launched by experienced Academician, former Minister of Health and PanEuropean CoE's Rapporteur on BioEthics, professor of Pediaterics and Genetics, Jean-Francois Mattei, speaking to "Eurofora":


- Nowadays, BioTech. has reached a level similar to ...Nuclear Bombs' Technology, while the Issue of Safeguarding People's Human Rights and Democratic Society's Safety has become "Global", spreading in a wide PlayField which extends "allover the Planet, as Humanity itself !", he characteristicaly told us in substance.


Significantly, Mattei said just after a landmark, Keynote Speech and Debate on Births obtained by Non-Natural ways, at Strasbourg's Annual "Forum on BioEthics", which gathers here Scientists, Jurists, Philosophers, Writers, Journalists and other various relevant Civil Society representatives during a whole Week, Focusing, for the 1st Time, in this Year of 2017, on the Most Crucial and "Hot" Issue of all, in the area of Bio-Medicine and Human Rights : that of the Distinction and Threshhold between "Human and Post-Human", as its organizers chose to sum it up, quite provocatively...


However, it was a rather Surprising Fact to find out that, despite their Controversial Decision to Spread throughout the City of Strasbourg, all the way from its Popular Suburbs, via a busy DownTown area, up to its "European Quarter", where not only EU Parliament and CoE's Headquarters, but even its PanEuropean Court of Human Rights (ECHR) are located, a lot of Huge Publicity Placards very Ostensibly bearing the Word "Post-Human", (on a Picture recalling, at least partialy, a rather Mean-looking CyBorg of uncertain sex), Nevertheless, all this generously subsidized by Local/Regional Public Funds' Promotional operation, (already Planified during the terms of Out-Going US and France Presidents Obama and Hollande, respectively) , did Not meet the Same Fate as, back on 2006, (i.e. during the Past Era of former US and France Presidents GWBush and Chirac), anOther such Publicity Placards campaign on "Hot" and BioEthicaly Controversial Issues, by the so-called "Raelian society" at Nearby Switzerland :


- Indeed, then, all such Publicity Placards including references f.ex. to Human "Cloning", and/or to the eventual Artificial production of "Geneticaly" Enhanced Beings, with "Superior" Characteristics to those of the Naturaly Born Humans, had been Strictly Forbidden by the Local and National Swiss Public Authorities, and the "Raelian Society"'s Complaint, lodged to ECHR in Strasbourg, against what they Claimed to be a so-called "Violation of Freedom of Speech", according to their Expensive Lawyers, had been subsequently Rejected, by a very Strong Majority of Euro-Judges, particularly as Contrary to, and InCompatible with the European Human Rights' Values...


But, Today, the real Situation has become even more Serious, as the main Organizer and co-Presidenrt of Strasbourg's Annual "BioEthical Forum", Professor on Gynecology at the University of Strasbourg, Raphael Nisand, clearly told "Eurofora" :


- Explaining the Reason for which such a particularly "Hot", obviously Controversial, and potentialy Dangerous Issue as the eventual emergence of a "Post-Human" reality, was Chosen this Year, in order to be Placed at the Focus of this 2017 edition of such a Widely Publicized Event, Professor Nisand observed that, in Fact, he had personaly Noticed that Recent Bio-Technological Advances and imminent Prospects, especialy around Acting on the Human "Brain", and ways to selectively Target and Modify specific Parts of the Human "Genome", (etc), clearly gave Nowadays an overall Impression that the Time had, most probably, come, to Raise the Question of eventual Changes in the ways that Human Organisms and/or ReProduction had been Working until now, for many Thousands of Years : Already, in a remote Past, f.ex. the Invention of Fire, allowing to Cook and Stock Food, gave so much Time to Human's everyday Life, f.ex. for Thinking, Building, Exploring, etc. that it Modified quite radically their overall existence, he argued, (while, However, trying, at the same time, to Distance himself from the very Controversial, often Schocking Claims of those who are usually called "Trans-Humanists", and allegedly Push towards the Creation of a kind of New, Superior Race of "Enhanced" or "Post-Human" Beings, with obvious potential Dangers for Humanity, (See also Infra).

Nevertheless, Language, (and, therefore, the possibility of Dialogue, Reflexion, Reasoning and Logic, i.e. the main basis for Personal and/or collective Freedom of Choice, Democracy, etc), appeared after "Homo Sapiens", a Long Time After the purely "Technological" Advances of various "Tools" that had been Already invented, much Earlier, "by the Hominids", at a more Remote Past, pointed out Criticaly, later-on, a representative of Human and Social Sciences, Professor Philippe Breton, of Strasbourg University's Journalism unit and Chief Editor of a Political Analysis website, who was Today the Keynote Speaker at the Concluding Session of 2017's BioEthical Forum, (dedicated to a "Hot" Debate on "Enhanced" and/or "Manipulated" Human beings).


As for the above-mentioned Invention of how to Use "Fire", the World-Famous image of Mythical "Prometheas", since the Ancient Grteek Mythology, (i.e. a Hero who Sacrificed his own Freedom in order to Bring the Secret of the Fire to all Humans, and who had been severely punished and sufferered for having done so, until he was set Free by another, comparatively Newer, Mythical Hero : Heracles), obviously reminds us, Today, that, as long as such a kind of ..."Modern Prometheas" has Not yet Emerged in Nowadays Society, in one way or another, inevitably, any eventual Invention of some kind of "New Fire" tools, claiming to perhaps "Enhance" some persons, would Not Yet Escape from the Risk to provoke a Dangerous Appart-Heid, which might even eradicate Humanity, at least as it has been for many Hundreds of Thousands of Years until now...

However, Mattei's topical Metaphore about cutting-edge BioTech. having reached, nowadays, a level Similar to "Nuclear Bombs'" Technology, (Comp. Supra), was subsequently reiterated, in a much More Lenient form, on the Occasion of an Interesting Debate about Recent Developments around the Human Brain, by Grenoble Medical Faculty's Director on Neuro-Science Research (France), and more recently also at nearby Geneva University in Switzerland, (which has for Decades pursued a High-Tech. International Research on Human Brain, including with the US, etc., as he confirmed to "Eurofora"), Professor Pierre Pollack : Nuclear Bombs might also be Dangerous for Humankind, but, nevertheless, the International Community has succeeded, at least until now, to Keep a Global Peace and Stability for Many Decades, he argued, pleading for a less anxious approach of Modern BioTech's new possibilities able to affect Human persons' future behavior and social way of life, even radicaly.


But, when "Eurofora", speaking later with Professor Pollack, observed the Fact that, Unlike to what has notoriously happened with that "Nuclear Bombs" Metaphore (Comp. Supra), on the Contrary, in the Particular case of Some Controversial Bio-Tech New Possibilities,  there is Not yet Any known Equivalent of "Nuclear Deterrence", which has been, all this Time, at the Basis of Global Peace, since the Invention of the Nuclear Bomb, (perhaps, at least Partly, thanks also to the Drama of the Rosenberg's couple, executed during the Cold War), he didn't find anything to object, simply limiting himself into kindly smiling and noding, in a silent but obvious acknowledgement...


Ibid, when we also mentioned to Pollack the supplementary Fact that, an eventual Abuse of some notoriously Dangerous Bio-Tech. new tools, (f.ex. by a Rogue State, a Dictatorship, or a Criminal Gang, various Terrorists, etc), Contrary to what usualy happens in most cases of Nuclear Bombs' Explosions, in that, Differend, case, there would Not be, Neither Any Loud "Boom" Noise, Nor any "Huge Mushroom" covering the Sky, No Bright Lightings, nothing of the sort, but just a Silent, Invisible but Radical Mutation, whose realm Consequences would become Perceptible Only Too much Later-on, so that People, Societies and the International Community might Not been given any Equivalent Chance to be Warned.                                  

                                                 
Experienced vice-President of 2017's "Forum on BioEthics", Professor of Genetics at the University of Strasbourg and Member of the prestigious "College de France", Jean-Louis Mandel, speaking to "Eurofora" on such issues (significantly : Selected at his own Initiative !), strived to "Calm" the overall Ambiance, and "Minimise" the eventual Risks, as much as possible : - My main point is that Both the Dreams of various "Trans-Humanists" for Radical Mutations, and the Fears of several People about eventual Dangers of Abuse of some New Bio-Tech. tools, are largely Exagerated, since the Reality is, in fact, very Far Away from what Both Claim, at least for the foreseable future, as we have already seen, in similar "Fake Promisses" and/or "False Alerts", also in the Past, Mandel told us, in substance, (before trying to Illustrate his Viewpoint with some Concrete Examples, in his various subsequent interventions during the still on-going debates, up to the concluding one).


- Nevertheless, "my Main Concern, is that a Dictatorship (abusing Bio-Tech) doesn't Fall upon us, out of a Sudden !", sternly Warned, the well-known Writer of Science Fiction, Engineer, and Journalist at the World Famous "Monde Diplomatique" Paris' review, Catherine Dufour, speaking earlier to "Eurofora", after a worrying Debate on the Critical and "Whistle-Blower" Function of "Science Fiction" litterature in several Books and Films in Modern History. (Such as, f.ex., among many others, also : Huxley's "Brave New World", Orwell's "Time Machine", Spielberg's version of "War of Worlds", Charlton Heston's "Green Sun" and/or "Planet of Apes"-like situations, among various Creatures Artificialy fabricated at some kind of "Dr. Moreau's island", and/or by one or another "Dr. Frankenstein", via some Maverick "Dr. Strangelove/ Folamour(s)" like that of Stanley Kubrick, etc., only to mention a Few among a Lot of relevant Science Fiction Warnings already given and illustrated previously, starting by a Russian Writer, at the Beginning of the 20th Century, who had, it seems, Inspired Aldus Huxley himself)...


+ And when, even the deadly Serious Global Diplomatic Community, at nearby UNO's European Headquarters in Geneva, has Recently debated about Starting to consider some New, "active Biology" High-Tech. Research and/or eventual Deployment, as a Part of various "Warfare" possibilities in Future, in the Context of the International Organisation's Peace Safeguarding Treaties and conventions' updates, All this could Not be merely Dismissed as pure 100% "Fiction", and Nothing else.

Similar, (even if, comparatively, somewhat less Tragic, in appearance) Concerns and Warnings, were expressed by Many Participants f.ex. also on "Mass Spying", (a very Topical Human Rights' and Democracy Issue, particularly popularized in nowadays' "After-Snowden" era, from 2013, i.e. Long After Orwell's "Big Brother" of his "1984"  Famous Book), during a Special Debate about "Big Data" and Multinational Companies' (as California's "Google", etc) possible intrusion in a Huge Number of People's Personal Data concering their Private, Professional, or Socio-Political Life, and particularly their "Health", (something that Insurance Businesses notoriously would like to dispose)...


Certainly, when Professor Nisand, (the President of Strasbourg's "Forum on BioEthics" : Comp. Supra), asked himself the participating Experts whether there was, or not, at least some "Useful" possible utilisations of such "Big Data", the Replies were Positive : Indeed, if well and adequately used, the overall Analysis of such Massive Informations, thanks to Modern "Digital" Tools, Internet connexions, various new, "smart machines", etc., may provide some very Interesting Inputs for Health Policies, several Experts clearly acknowledged.

But, sometimes, Big Surprises might be Hidden even behind certain, apparently very Anodynous and Sympathetic Bio-Tech. research nowadays, as the Debate on Human Brain spectacularly Revealed :


- It all Started with Grenoble+Geneva Universities' Professor Pierre Pollack (Ciomp. Supra), who was invited to Describe his Famous Invention developments about "Brain Stimulations", via Electro-Magnetic Waves, aimed to Fight against a recently Growing quasi-Epidemics of "Alzheimer" Disease, notoriously affecting particularly Elderly people, in Modern Ageing Societies, where individuals normaly Live much Longer than in the Past. Pollack clearly and extensively presented a wide view of his Team's relevant Research work against Alzheimer disease, (which, as he reminded, Threatens to Degrade or even Destroy People's capacity to memorize various quasi-"Automatic" reactions to external stimulus, that everybody Needs in EveryDay Life, and has, normaly, aquired, already since early Childhood). For that purpose, he explained that Modern Research has Focused particularly on a certain Area of the Human Brain, which lies Deep inside its Core, trying to "stimulate" it adequately.

- However, as anOther Expert patiently Revealed - also Neurology Professor Mathieu Anheim, of Strasbourg's University, a specialist of "Parkinson" disease at Inter-Regional area, and particularly "interested in Behavioral" Science, as he told afterwards "Eurofora" -  near Pollack's area of Brain experiments, stands also something Else, which is very Important :


>>> Indeed, it's also there that Human Persons' capacity to Withhold, for a Time, any otherwise Impulsive Reaction to various External Stimulus, f.ex. in order to be Able to Think, Examine Seriously a given Situation and its Future Prospects, Reflect on Alternative Possible Consequences, and/or Freely and Concsiously Choose what is Best to Do, withOut any quasi-Spasmodic Automatic Impulsion being eventualy Imposed upon them, Professor Anheim explained. So that, even these Same "Stimulations" of that Brain area's Forgotten Automatisms that Pollack strived to Explore in order to Fight against "Alzheimer" Disease (Comp. Supra), might, eventualy, (if incorrectly used, or abused by anyone else), also Provoke various UnDesirable "Impulsive", mechanic Reactions of People, in whose Brain that precious Capacity to take enough Time in order to Think well abd Consiously Decide what's really Best to Choose, Instead of merely Reacting to External Stimulus made by Others, might have been Dangerously Reduced, (f.ex. by an Artificial Intervention).

=> In other words, if nobody paid any Attention to such potential Risks, then, People's Brain might be Externaly Manipulated, Professor Anheim concluded in substance...


A Timely Warning, especialy when several other Experts almost agreed, in the Concluding Debate, that a Foreseable Move might be the possible Emergence of a Push towards some kind of "CyBorgs", where certain individuals could be Artificialy "Enhanced", not only through various Genetic Manipulations' Technics, but also via differend Electro-Magnetic or other Interactions, "Prothese", etc., connected to the Human Body, (etc).

Such kind of Facts are obviously Interesting to be seriously examined and debated Nowadays, particularly when f.ex. the French National Assembl is due to Publish and Vote, in just 1 Month (on March 2017), a crucial Report on BioEthics, drafted by MP Jean-Yves Deaut, who is also preparing another Topical draft Resolution on Modern BioTechnologies due to be Debated and Voted by CoE's PanEuropean Parliametary Assembly during its forthcoming, Spring 2O17 Session, on April, as Deaut (who is also a mainstream PACE's MEP) told "Eurofora".

But, as far as the even "Hotter" Controversy, about some's Wishes or even Attempts to artificialy create a kind of New, "Mutated" Beings, of a "Post-Human", or even "Trans-Humanist" Agenda, (against which, Most Participants Warned about particularly Aggravated Risks of several "InHuman" consequences being obviously possible, if nobody takes care to Timely prevent Abuses), things risked, at the end, to become quite Nasty, when a Group of so-called "Trans-Humanists", (Omni-present during almost  all this Exceptional 2017 Strasbourg's "Forum on BioEthics" week of meetings, in which at least one of them Fully Participated among the officialy Invited Experts, as several attending People, astonished Complained to "Eurofora" and others), attempted to even Take the Speech in Public and make open Propaganda, also at the Concluding Session, (while, on the Contrary, Nobody among those Clearly Opposed to such Chimeras, obviously Dangerous for all Humankind, didn't manage to get a Chance to Speak in Public then)...

It's Interesting to note, in this occasion, the Fact that, when "Eurofora", in a private conversation with the person who seemed to be the "Leader" of that "TransHumanist" propaganda Group, simply Asked him if there was "Any Guarantee" that what they Seek to impose, "will Not result Neither to a kind of "Appart-Heid", Nor to any sort of "Dictatorship"", (as we said, Simplifying things to make short), his Reply was Astonishing : - How could anyone "Guarantee", or provide "Safeguards", against such Risks, (concerning an eventual "TransHumanist" abuse of some controversial Bio-Tech. researches : Comp. Supra) ?", he spontaneously, but significantly wondered. All this is a question of Political (sic !) Fight, withOut any Guarantee, Neither Safeguards being possible a priori, he concluded, without having anything more to say on this naturaly Crucial point.

=> In these Conditions (Comp. also Supra), is it Better to consider the Nature of the Human Person, as a Holy and/or Impregnable Sanctuary, as advised Civil Society Leader of "VITA" NGO, Tugdual Derville, who has endoresed also, After 2013, the "Human Ecology" Movement of Ideas, that he co-represents now in France ? (I.e. as f.ex. Pope Emeritus Benedict had inspired previously by his landmark 2011 Speech at the German Bundestag, after his 2009 Encyclic "Caritas in Veritas", etc. : See relevant "Eurofora"s NewsReports of 2009, 2010, 2011, etc., but also, Comp. our earlier, 2004, 2005, and previous various Publications, since the 1990ies, including on "MPA" Press Agency and various other fora, until recently, on this issue of key importance for all Humankind nowadays).

At any case, at least 1 main point is for sure : Many among the recent, and still Rapidly Developing Bio-Tech. Controversies vis a vis the Nature of Humanity, have certainly become, more and more, a very Crucial Issue for Human Rights and Democracy, as well as for the Present and Future of Humankind !

And as Derville told "Eurofora" that his NGO intends to Publish soon, before the forthcoming French Presidential Elections of April - May 2017, an overall Assessment of the Out-Going Socialist Government's, "of Hollande'"s, 5 Years of Acts "vis a vis Bio-Ethical Values" (2012-2017), we urged him to cooperate with other adequate people for a Similar "Assessment" also on former US President Obama's acts in the field of Bio-Tech and Ethical Values.


Obviously Starting from that Controversial and apparently Inefficient, at least as far as Human Health is concerned, 2009 Obama's decision to re-instore Federal Funding for Genetic Manipulations of Human Embryos, as Clinton had already done previously, but Contrary to former US President GWBush's 2001-2008 honestly kept pre-electoral promisse to Stop such a Controversial and Dangerous Waste of Federal Funds, in order to Protect Humanity from any eventually serious risks.


Now it remains to be seen what the New US President Don Trump's team, (Together with vice-President Mike Spence, and/or their Friend Governon Mike Huckabee, etc), may decide, sooner or later, to do in that crucial field too (Comp. Supra), as several Franco-American and Other Experts, including, f.ex., Nicolas Miaille, from Harvard's Kennedy School of Government, told "Eurofora" that they think quite possible, if not even logical.


>>> In Fact, Nowadays, there is obviously a Vital Need for quite Strong and Crystal-clear Ideas, Able to rapidly spread a both Deep Conscience of what is really at Stake, and what should be Urgently done, in order to find an Adequate way to benefit from real Health-strengthening possibilities from certain Bio-Technical Advances, while also ensuring, as a matter of Priority, to Safeguard Humanity's present and future.

 

(../..)


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(Opinion)

Paris - Bruxelles - Strasbourg, 2 septembre 2008

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Le spectaculaire succès du Président français, Nicolas Sarkozy, (en tête de l'UE jusqu'a décembre), à obtenir de suite un cessez le feu inattendu entre la Russie et la Georgie, immédiatement après sa visite aux Présidents Medvedev et Saakashvili, au pire moment de tensions et heurts violents meurtieurs, qui avaient tué plusieurs innocents et provoqué le deplacement forcé de réfugiés par milliers, lui donne incontestablement une stature vraiment européenne :

A ses liens personnels bien connus avec l'Hongrie, la Grece, l'Italie ou l'Espagne, en sus de son amitié avec la chancelière allemande Merkel, son souhait d'essayer d'attirer l'Angleterre au jeu européen, etc, s'y ajoute, maintenant, une réussite, fragile certes, mais importante, au combat pour la Paix dans la "grande" Europe du général De Gaulle, "jusqu'a l'Oural", qui inclut naturellement la Géorgie, l'Arménie et d'autres pays, et ne peut exister qu'avec rapports de confiance et partenartiat stratégique avec la Russie.

Apres avoir réussi à debloquer la situation au Liban, (pays avec liens culturels historiques en Europe), lors du Sommet pour la Méditerranée à Paris, juillet dernier, (comme atteste maintenant le prémier accord d'echange d'Ambassadeurs avec la Syrie), Sarkozy activa maintenant une présidence française de l'EU bien entreprenante, à l'autre bout de l'Europe, à Moscou, où, contrairement à Napoléon, il a été reçu avec soulagement par le nouveau président russe, ami de l'experimenté Vladimir Poutine.

Cet homme politique rélativement nouveau au plan politique européen, avec une vision souvent critique ou même critiquée, à tort ou a raison, mais ambitieuse et concrete a la fois, qui aime s'adresser aux "Européens", comme il dit, n'est-il pas bien placé pour stimuler le fameux débat sur l' "Identité de l' Europe", qu'il a proposé au Parlement Européen récemment à Strasbourg, moins d'un an avant les Elections européennes de 2009 ?

En 2007, il a réussi à faire monter spectaculairement la participation citoyenne aux élections présidentielles en France, obtenant des récords historiques :

N'est-ce pas, justement ce que l' Europe a bésoin, apres 2 abstentions majoritaires sans précedent aux Elections de 1999 et 2004, et 3 "Non" aux réferenda pour ses institutions en 2005 et 2008, pendant une décennie trouble 1999-2008, (marquée surtout par la demande controversée de la Turquie d'entrer dans l'UE eclipsant les avancées de la Monnaie unique et de la liberté de circulation à l'espace Shengen, avec consequences mal-ressenties par la majorité des citoyens, bien au-délà des clivages du passé), qui a failli stopper l'integration européenne ?

Et cela, au moment même ou une globalisation galopante met l'Europe devant un choix crucial entre saut qualitatif en avant, apte à valoriser une occasion historique exceptionelle à se développer résolument, après les vaines destructions, querelles et tensions des guerres "chaudes" ou "froides" qui lui ont couté son rang dans le Monde, ou réculer définitivement en décadence...

Alors, que certains de nos amis à la Commission en Bruxelles, lui laissent au moins un peu d'espace de mouvement, et qu'ils l'aident à tenter d'insufler de l' oxygène frais et vivifiant aux rapports entre les citoyens et une Europe qui a manifestement bésoin et mérite de retrouver d'urgence un nouveau dynamisme populaire, avec un souci de réalisme mais aussi une vision passionante pour son avenir !

Après tout, les Etats Unis d' Amérique ne se sont pas faits à coups de bureaucratie, nécessaire et utile, mais manifestement insuffisante : Sans l'impulsion d'hommes politiques originaux, d'intellectuels vraiment engagés, et, surtout, sans l'enorme énergie émanant de la conscience d'enjeux à la fois pratiques et grandioses, bien resentis par des millions de citoyens, stimulant leur adhésion active comme pioniers d'un nouveau avenir commun à construire, ils seraient encore une ex-colonie périphérique, affaiblie par stériles divisions, passif et impuissant spectateur des convulsions tragiques d'un Monde à la dérive...

Que les vrais "européens" ré-lisent au moins les fameux discours historiques sur l' Europe d'un Sarkozy bien inspiré à Strasbourg, aussi bien avant qu'après avoir gagné les élections françaises, le 21 février et le 2 juillet 2007, après son 1er sommet des Bruxelles, qui a adopté le nouveau Traité de l'UE en conclusion de la presidence allémande : Bonnes lectures pour cet été 2008, afin de préparer l' avenir qui s'ouvrira (ou fermera) à partir des élections européennes de 2009.

Peut-etre revelera-t-il plus, en ce sens, lors de ses 2 discours-debats prochains avec les eurodeputés, prévus lors des sessions plenières du Parlement Européen a Strasbourg en octobre et décembre 2008... 

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Foreign Minister Bernard Kouchner had already unveiled President Sarkozy's intentions, during a particularly "hot" Press Conference in Paris, where he faced some's insistance for "sanctions", with a call for "a common EU stance". In the meanwhile, he was consulting "all these days" most of his EU, Russia and Georgia counterparts, (as Sarkozy's Spokesman, P-J. Henin confirmed to "EuroFora"). This allowed him to obtained the desired result, as EU Chairman, at a short, exceptional EU Summit in Brussels, afterwards.

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But, Sarkozy's No 1 official, Presidential palace's Secretary General Claude Gueant, active at Elysee during the 2008 Ambassadors' Conference, (together with his Top Diplomat, the experienced David Levitte), is well known for having an overall view : A link with 2009 EU Elections at the horizon ?

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