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Home arrow newsitems arrow Turkey Military Interference in Divided Libya with Islamist Extremists =3fold Threat against Europe+

Turkey Military Interference in Divided Libya with Islamist Extremists =3fold Threat against Europe+

Written by ACM
Sunday, 05 January 2020
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*Strasbourg/Angelo Marcopolo/[Partly UpDated]- Confirmation even by Turkish President Erdogan, that Ankara started to send to Libya mainly Islamist Extremists Armed Gangs from Syria, etc, in the context of a wider Turkish Military Intervention in a Divided Country facing Europe's Mediterranean SeaCoasts, by a coincidence, the Same Hours that an "Allah Akbar" Yelling Turk attacked with a Knife 2 persons in Germany (GelsebnKirchen), just a Day after another Islamist Extremist Killed one and Wounded 2 Civilian People, also with a Knife, in France, near Paris (Villejuif), closely Followed by another such Islamist Knife Attack even at Nearby Metz, in Strasbourg's Region, (etc), while, at Lybia's South, in Burkina Faso, other Islamist Terrorists were Killing even School-Children in a Bus, following Other such Atrocities near the Libyan Borders at Niger, after another Mass Killing of Christians on Christmas' Day in Nigeria, (etc), remind, in Fact, that, Today's Controversial Turkey's Move Provokes, at least, 3 main Threats Against Europe and well beyond, which Risk to seriously Affect Security, Migration, and Energy (See Infra).

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 - Indeed, Erdogan reportedly spoke about a "Gradual Departure" of various "Troops" Send by Turkey to Libya, and Claimed that "the role of the Turkish Military... is Not to Fight" there. Troops "are in the Process of being Progressively Deployed" in Libya, "But Our (Turkish) Soldiers will Not be Part" of the "Fighting Forces", for which "We shall have also Other Teams on the spot", he pointed out, withOut revealing yet whom he meant.

 - On the Contrary, "the Task of Our (Turkey's) Soldiers there is Coordination" Only, Erdogan Claimed Today. Adding that, Already, "this is what they are Doing, at This Moment, inside a Command Center", where "one of Our (Ankara's) Lieutenant-Generals Will be Placed at the Head of that Command Center", as he said.

- As for that "Fighting Force", that will be "coordinated" by Turkish Officers, it will be Composed by "Various Units", Erdogan simply Evoked, withOut Explicitating, Not even saying When it Arrived, or Will arrive in Libya...

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Previously, even Before the Turkish Parliament Votes to send Troops, Libyan Medias had Published Radar-Maps for at least 4 big Passenger Airplanes Travelling, All at the Same Time, from Istanbul (Constantinople) to Tripoli (Libya), suspected to be Filled with Jihadists/Foreign Fighters from Syria, and/or Delivering Weapons to the Tripoli side of the Libyan Conflict, in Violation of UN SC Resolution on Arms Embargo.

+ London based "Syrian Observatory for Human Rights", meanwhile, had Published various alleged EyeWitnesses' Testimonies about Public Offers for Jobs as Mercenary in Libya, Paid around 1.800 or 2000 € as Monthly Salary, etc. reportedly shown on several Placards at the Walls of Buildings in Turkish-Occupied Syrian Kurdish area of Afrin, and elsewhere, controled by various Islamist Extremist Armed Gangs, Proxies of the Turkish Army.

+ Similar, but shorter, Press Reports were Also Published by mainstream Agencies "Bloomberg" (USA),"Deutsche Welle" (Germany), and partly even "Reuters", etc, citing Various Sources, including Turkish.

Initialy, Turkish State sources had reportedly Claimed that, around "250" Islamists from Nearby Idlib, (notoriously Controlled by Al Queda's Successors), might be send to Libya as ... "Translators", for the "Logistics" (sic !).

But, Today, even the USA's Embassy in Libya has Just Denounced "the Dangers of TOXIC (sic !) Foreign Interference in Libya, such as the Arrival of Syrian Fighters, supported by Turkey", inter alia...

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+ Moreover, at the Same Time, in Addition, Erdogan did Not Deny at all, but on the Contrary : he Implied, (F.ex. by Stressing that "Our (Turkish Military's) Goal is to Support" one of the Parties in Conflict, etc, Despite the fact that UNO's Secretary General, Antonio Guterres, has clearly Warned, Yesterday, Against "any Foreign Support to the Warring Parties"), that Turkey was going to blatantly Violate UNO's Arms Embargo on Libya, by Providing Weapons to the Side Headquartered in Tripoli.

Nowadays Photos published at the Internet (Comp. Supra), as well as a Recent UNO's Report, have already Accused Turkey to Violate that Arms Embargo in Libya, imposed by an UN SC Resolution. As this Now, Obviously, Risks to Grow Much Bigger, the situation risks to remind that of ISIS' Terrorists Emerging all accross Syria and Iraq's Borders with Turkey, Back on 2012-2014, with the then Head of Syrian Kurds, Salih Muslim Muhammed, asking, Surprized, "Eurofora" at the CoE in Strasbourg : - "Who gives them all those Abraam Tanks, those Humwees, Rockets, etc, ?"...(Comp. : http://www.eurofora.net/newsflashes/news/syriankurdsheadtoeuroforaatthecoe.html, etc). In Libya, Nowadays, it's more about Turkish Drones, etc....

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As for an Eventual Delay, in what made Erdogan speek Now about a "Process" of "Gradual Deployment" for Turkey's Troops, etc., this might, eventualy, be Due also to the Fact that, during these Last Days, General Haftar's Forces, (supported by the Internationaly Recognized Lybian Parliament Refugeed at the East  : Tobruk, since a 2014 Armed "Putsch" by those who Now Support Tripoli's Side), after putting out of order the Big Airport of Tripoli since April 2019, seem to have Nowadays Focused on Bombarding the Misrata Airport there, (which had Recently to "Suspend" its activities), followed by more repeated NLA Air Bombings also against Tripoli's Mitiga Airport too.

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But, at least, one thing seems Clear : The Turkish President's Claim that Ankara's Military Intervention would have been Provoked also by a Alleged Need to "Prevent a Humanitarian Catastrophe" (sic !), as he said Now, does Not correspond to the Real Facts !

Indeed, inter alia, it's Enough to see What was doing These Last Days the so-called "Prime Minister" of Tripoli's side, Fayez al-Sarraj, who had, notoriously, stroke a Deal with Erdogan, including the Arrival of Turkish Troops :

- If any Political Leader really Believes that his People might, Perhaps, Face any such alleged Risk of an imminent "Humanitarian Catastrophe" (Comp. Supra), to the point that it might, Eventually, make necesary to Desperately Call for Help from Foreign Powers, Exceptionaly, then, in such Dramatic Circumstances, .... he certainly does Not Abandon his Homeland Alone, just in order to make ... Family "Holidays" in London, and Repeatedly be Seen (and Photgraphed, Filmed, etc) to go .. "Shopping" with his Kids at "Oxford Street", as Mr Al-Sarraj has just been cought by bypassers to do These Days, at least until Yesterday included (4/1/2020+) and may be even more !...     

(See relevant Photo + Video, which went "Viral" at the Web).

>>> You just doN't Go "Shopping" at "Oxford Street" in London Family "Holidays" the Day your Country faces a Foreign Military Intervention by Turkish troops, particularly If you are Sincerely Moved by a Fear of Imminent "Humanitarian Catastrophe" (Comp. Supra) !...

Libya did Not Face Any Foreign Military Intervention, Not Even when the Powerfull and popular former Leader Qaddafi was Ousted, Back on 2011 : UK, France, USA a.o. Never Dared Send Military Troops to put their Boots on the Libyan Ground. They just tried to Help the Rioters mainly by some Targetted AIrStrikes, etc., if and when they were Attacked by the Regime's Army with a DisProportionate Force.

To the point that, Nowadays, even Qaddafi's exiled Daughter, Aysha, reportedly issued a Statement Calling for armed Resistance against the Turkish Military "Invasion", as Critical Libyan Medias have just reported.

In the MeanTime, while Big Popular Demonstrations Against the Foreign Turkish Military Invasion were held at Various Cities in Libya, including, f.ex,, Tobruk, Bayda, etc., in broad DayLight, with Large Participation, including Couples, even Children, and Omni-Present, Numerous National Libyan Flags, etc., as Libyan Medias reported,

on the Contrary, a Rare Opposite Move by Turkey's Fans in Tripoli, took place only overNight (at 1 a.m. !), withOut any woman or kid, but Only some Thuggish-looking Individuals, Many Hidding their Heads into balaclavas, etc, almost withOut any visible Libyan National Flag, and Publicised at the Internet by Obvious Islamist Extremists, (etc)...

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=> However, at least 3 More Grave Risks than one might think at First Sight, Threaten, in Fact, Europe itself :

- (1) -

First of all, a Turkish and/or Islamist Extremists' intervention inside Lybia, risks to be Exploited, in one way or another, by Various Islamist Extremist Armed Gangs, including ISIS, which still Holds an Area Near Tripoli, but Influences much More the South.

And there, Libya is Linked with the 5 Countries of the strategic "Sahel" Region : Chad, Niger, Burkina Faso, Mali,  which have Recently (between 2014 - 2019) become the Focus of ISIS-affiliated "Boko Haram" and other Islamist Terrorist Groups, Multiplying Deadly Attacks mainly against Civilian People, but, sometimes even Military, etc, provoking a Havoc.

This Blocks Plans to Transfert, by Pipeline, NIgeria's abudant Gas Resources towards Europe, through Algeria and/or Maroc, ("Trans-Saharian" Pipeline, etc). while also EnDangering Uranium Supplies for France, which becomes - with UK's "BREXIT" - the Only EU-Member with Nuclear Deterrence : A real GeoPoliticaly Hostile Factor Against Europe, that several Other EU Member Countries are just Starting to Face, Together with France.

- (2) -

 At the Same Time, given Also the Fact that Libya's Western Coast, around Tripoli, has become a Hotbed for a Mass "Smuggling" Lobby, notoriously sending more and more Mass Asylum Seekers/Iregular Migrants from Africa towards Europe, through Italy and/or France, etc, it's obvious that any eventual Intrusion of Islamist Extremist Armed Gangs inside the Public Administration in Tripoli, could Seriously EnDanger the Security of European People.

As, already, Many Bloody Incidents have attested, Starting, f.ex., by 2 Fake "Refugees" (in fact: ISIL's Terrorists) who had infiltrated Europe from Turkey, through Greece, back on 2015, to actively Participate in the "Bataclan" massive Massacre in Paris, (etc)...

Or a 32 Years Old convicted Criminal, who presented himself as a ..."Child" aged just 15 or 16 y.o., was accepted as "Refugee", given Money and placed in a Foster Family, etc., by Hidding even the fact that he had been Already Condemned for Brutaly Attacking a Young Woman in Greece, that he Threw over a Bridge, and Abandoned for Dead, (even if she escaped death, but was Seriously Wounded), until he Violently Aggressed, Raped, and KIlled a Young Girl in Germany, (at Nearby Freiburg), who used to Help Refugees... (etc).

European People have Already suffered from a Lot of such UnPrecedented in History "Blunders", (particularly when, Suddenly, More than 1,5 Millions of Mass Asylum Seekers/Irregular Migrants Tresspassed into the EU through Turkey), including inter alia, also f.ex. tha case of Deadly ISIS Terrorists' Top Propagandist, who arrived in Europe as if he was a ... Tourist, Met and Networked several Islamist Extremist "Sleeping" Cells here, even went ...Shopping at Marseille (France), buying Photo and Video Equipement for his notoriously Horrible Islamist Terrorism Propaganda Worldwide, and Returned Back to Syria to Continue his Morbid Persuasion Job, Affecting Millions of Feable-Minded and/or UnderAge People accross the World-Wide-Web, too often, notoriously Pushed towards committing Brutal Crimes... (ETC)+

=> Obviously, Europe canNot Afford, No More, a Repetition or even a massive Aggravation of such Bloody "Blunders" again, a fortiori No, if such kind of UnTrustWorthy, Islamist Extremism Networks will Now be installed right at the Front of the Huge African Continent's "Door" towards EU Countries, which is Libya and its Mediterranean Coasts, (particularly around Tripoli's notorious Smugglers' Ghetto)...            

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 - (3) -

But this Turkish move, to Suddenly jump from its Deadly Military Invasion of Northern Syria, in Asia, to anOther controversial Deadly Military Intervention, at anOther Continent : Africa, EnCircling Europe from anOther Side, is Not due to a pure Hasard, Neither a mere Coincidence, just Happening by Chance : On the Contrary, it seems to be a Calculated Step, Serving, in Fact, certain very Precise Turkish Interests Against Europe, which have Nothing to do with the Libyan People, (as even the African Union Organisation has just Warned Tripoli) :

- Indeed, it all comes Just After a Joint, Greece - Cyprus and Israel move (due to be Joined also by Others, Later-on), and already Supported by the EU and USA, to Sign a Deal for the Construction of Strategic Gas Pipeline due to Bring DIRECTLY into the EU the Recently Growing Energy Findings at the South Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and probably More (See : ..., etc), nick-named the "EAST-MED" Pipeline, practically Linking Israel and Cyprus' Sea Coasts, Near Friendly Egypt's similar Findings (which may Join asap : See ibid), Straight up to Greece and Italy, (which is expected to Join Later-on, and Already Supports that Plan inside EU's "Common Interest Projects").

+ And Just Before the Forthcoming inauguration, Next Week, of a Russia - Turkey Pipeline, through the Black Sea, (that Ankara would probably like to Later Extend, If Possible, until Greece into the EU, through its Anatolia Plateau, in order to get some Money to become sure to Pay itself for the Russian Gas it will receive, Despite the Shaky situation of the Turkish Economy currenty)...

However, Careful, the Russian President Vladimir Putin, has Not Yet given the "Green Light" for the Eventual Creation of such a Long and Zig-Zaging Russia - EU Pipeline through Turkey, But Reserved this as a possible Option for the Future, If and When, inter alia, EU Commission Might, Perhaps, Endorse, (or not), as such, or with some Modifications, that 2nd (and Bigger) Part of this Russian Pipeline through the Black Sea...

Naturally, Russia already has Also Several Other Possibilities (much More Simple, almost Ready, Faster, Cheaper, and Safer) to directly Provide Gas to the EU, withOut being Obliged to take the Trouble of Building from scratch even anOther Pipeline through the Black Sea, which would make all that Long Zig-Zag towards and from Turkey's Earthquake-prone Anatolia Plateau, Amidst various Risks from the Kurdish, Syrian, and Internal Conflicts (as, f.ex. also that 2016 short-lived Military "Coup", etc), added to Ankara's Notorious Bad Habits to Often Abuse of Political Blackmails, (etc) :

- Among Others, Indeed, Russia has just Agreed, Recently, with Ukraine's New President Zelensky, to re-Open the Pre-Existing Russian-Ukranian-EU Pipeline, for Deliveries inside the European Union ! Moreover, it all looks as if Germany Really sticks at its Plans for the "Northern Stream" Pipeline with Russia, so that it would, most Probably, go on asap... And a Direct (i.e. Not Obliged to Zig-Zag through Troublesome Turkey) Russia - EU Pipeline through the Blask Sea, naturally remains Still Technically Possible via EU Member Bulgaria, as it had been Planned Earlier, with a much Shorter, Faster, Cheaper and Safer Trajectory, (if EU Commission agrees), (Etc+)...

=> So that Turkey's own, Selfish Interests, canNot allow for the EU to have Other, Preferable Possibilities of Direct, Faster, Cheaper and Safer Gas Supplies, by Russia and/or By the Partnership between Israel, Cyprus and Greece (Comp. Supra)...

And this can Explain why, inter alia, also the Turkish vice-President Fuat Octay has reportedly launched, Recently, various Threats, (including vis a vis Israel, Cyprus and Greece's "East-Med" Gas Pipeline project, Supported by the EU and USA), Brutaly Claiming (indirecty but surely) that "it will FAIL", and/or Even that "We (Turkey will DESTROY"(sic !), such attempts, (etc)...  

>>> What happened Nowadays on Libya looks, at least, as a big Part of it : Indeed, Turkey seems to have pushed the Shaky Tripoli Government to make a Controversial Double Deal : I.e, in substance, No Troops to face General Haftar's more Popular Army (Backed by the Internationaly Recognized Libyan Parliament, Refugeed at Tobruk, since a 2014 "Putch" in Tripoli), unless "Prime Minister" Fayez al-Sarraj also Endorses a Controversial, and apparently, grossly illegal Delimitation of Libya's and Turkey's EEZ which, practically, Omits all the Rights, (according to the International Law of the Sea) of Greek Islands, as big Creta, and even Cyprus itself, etc., as if they did Not have Any EEZ at all ! The Result of such a Caricatural way to ill-treat the International Law of the Sea is, practically, to Attribute almost ...Everything located between remote Turkey and Libya Exclusively to them, but absolutely Nothing to the Neighbouring Countries, Never mind how Near they might be...

=> The craddle of the matter is that, by doing so, Turkey, in fact, pretends that it might Hinder Any Direct Link between Israel and Cyprus, from one side, and Greece from the other, since Ankara would have Claims on a Great Part of its Trajectory : In other words, to put it in a nutshell, Turkey seeks to practically Cut EU's EEZ there in 2 Separate and Distant Parts, by Arbitrarily Ommitting all EU Islands' EEZ, located in the Middle...

So that this Turkish Move blatantly Undermines EU's Sovereignity and Energy Security, as it practically seeks to Hinder the only existing Direct Link to Important Energy Resources largely located inside EU Member States' EEZ (Cyprus, Greece, etc), and Other Friendly Countries, (Israel, Egypt, etc).

+ Moreover, it wasN't in the competence of a Non-Elected, "Interim" Government, as that of PM Sarraj (which had, Initially, been Agreed in order to Prepare Elections, which Never too place until now...), to take such a Decision, withOut Unanimity, Neither the Agreement of the Internationaly Recognized Parliament, refugeed at Tobruk, (which has reportedly Rejected Both Mr. Sarraj himself, and that Controversial Deal with Turkey), well informed Lybian sources pointed out.   

=> In consequence, "the Turkey-Libya Memorandum of Understanding on the delimitation of Maritime Jurisdictions in the Mediterranean Sea infringes upon the Sovereign Rights of 3rd States, does Not Comply with the Law of the Sea, and canNot produce Any Legal Consequences for 3rd States", Unanimously stressed EU's 28 Member States in their Official Conclusions at the Latest EU Heads of State/Government Summit, on December 2019 in Brussels, (See, f.ex. : http://www.eurofora.net/newsflashes/news/eusummitslamsturkishlibyanflop.html, etc).

- Therefore, "the European Council unequivocally reAffirms its Solidarity with Greece and Cyprus, regarding these actions by Turkey", this BRX EU Summit underlined Firmly.

+ Meanwhile, a Strong Boost was Also Given to the "East-Med" Gas Pipeline a.o. relevant Projects by an "East-Med Act" adopted by USA's Congress n Washington DC, and Signed by US President Don Trump.

>>> Expressing, on this occasion, "Our Full Solidarity with Cyprus and Greece, in Front of Turkey's Provocatons in Eastern Mediterranean", French President Emmanuel Macron stressed, in his Press Conference, at the Conclusion of the Latest EU Summit in Brussels, that "It's Absolutely CRUCIAL" to express "Solidarity among EU Member States", so that "We'll Take ALL Useful MEASURES in this sense", as he Underlined with a particularly Firm Look in his eyes, because "we must Not Yield to any Provocation".

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>>> In the Meantime, Turkey's Claim for Military Intervention inside Libya, had already Started to be Slamed, in one way or another, from Many Sides :

- F.ex., UNO's SG, Antonio Guterrez, Ruled Out "Any Foreign Support to Warring Parties" in Libya. "Any Foreign Support will only Deepen the on-going Conflict", he Warned, (almost as also Russian President Vladimir Putin).    

- EU's High Representative Borrel, expressed his "Deep Concern".

- African Union's Committee President, Moussa Faki Mahamat, called for the "Rapid Promotion of a PEACEFUL Outcome from this Crisis", and "reiterated the African Union's attachment to an Inclusive POLITICAL SOLUTION, where All Actors ...play a main role".

- US President Don Trump Warned Turkey against any "Foreign Interference", because this "would Make the situation in Libya More Complicated".

- The "Arab League" adopted an official Statement Warning of "the Gravity" of "Foreign Military Interventions", which "contribute to the Escalation and Prolongation of the Conflict" in Libya.

+ Moreover, "Interventions" which "Transfer ...Foreign Extremist Fighters, from Other regional Conflict Zones, to Libya", should be Prevented, it stressed.     

- Saudi Arabia and Other Arab Countries "Condemned" Turkey's Military Interference inside Libya.

- “The Turkish decision to Deploy Troops in Libya presents a Dangerous Threat to regional stability", "constitutes a Gross Violation of the UN SC ...Arms Embargo",  "and seriously Undermines ... efforts to find a Peaceful, Political Solution", but "Marks an Escalation of the Conflict and a Significant Deterioration",  Denounced also a Joint Declaration by Cyprus' President Anastassiades and Prime Ministers of Israel and Greece, Netanyahu and Mitsotakis.

- "Turkey should Not Violate the Libyan Political Agreement, and related UN Resolutions", because the "Repercussions of such a Reckless move will be Dire for the Stability and Peace of the entire Region". On the Contrary, Ankara "should Refrain from ... Such Action, which blatantly Violates Libyan national Sovereignty and Independence”, they Urged.

[+Partly UPDATED]

=> - The Main Message is "Keep Your Hands OUT OF LIBYA !", because "the Country is Suffering too much from Foreign Interferences", reportedly Urged the UN Envoy for Libya, Ghassam Salamé, after speaking in a Closed Doors Meeting of UNO's Security Council at New York, (reportedly suggested by Russia, at first).

- "Arms sold or Given to Libyans, InDirect Foreign Military Interventions", etc., "All Kinds of Direct Foreign Interference make things Difficult". "There is Enough Weapons in Libya, they Don't Need Extra Weapons. There are Enough Mercenaries. So, STOP SENDING MERCENARIES, as it's the case RIGHT NOW, with Hundreds, probably Thousands, Comming into the Country, of late" !, he Warned.

On the Contrary, the Country should Focus on a Threefold Gradual Process : Economic/Social, Security, and Political, due to be Boosted this Month in Berlin, in order to Unfold, Later-on at nearby Geneva, for an Agreed Solution to the Crisis, the Top UN Envoy prefered.

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(../..)

 

("Draft-News" + Partly UpDated)

 

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Fillon invites EU to invent "New Horizons" behind Oil crisis

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geothermal_plant_400_01Soultz-under-Forests, June 13, 2008

A pioneer Franco-German research project on GeoThermy, near Strasbourg, served as "Symbol" of EU's will to become Independent on Energy by developing innovative Technologies, while imported Oil prices threaten to provoke a World-wide crisis.

It's essential to demonstrate Europe's will to "invent New Horizons", by creating Environment-friendly, Independent and Renewable Energy sources, while price rises continue for Oil, a polluting old ressource with insufficient stocks, stressed French Prime Minister Francois Fillon, anouncing that this will be a focus during the forthcoming French EU Presidency (July - December 2008).

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Fillon symbolically injected a 1st KWh produced by GeoThermy into Strasbourg's Electricity grid, during a special gathering of German and French officials at Soultz-under-Forests ("Soultz-sous-Forêts"), using a geothermal innovation which is "the most advanced in the World" :

The innovation uses Strasbourg's underground water richness to capture Heat, by injecting liquid among Rocks 5 km deep, where temperature is 200 c. Thus, it can be activated at any moment and location, even without natural warm water springs : A big advantage compared to old biothermal tools.

Engineers, Scientists and the Industry will have 2 Years to invent practical ways for this innovation to become productive and cost-efficient in real Economy, said Fillon.

115 Millions of Euros invested, 15 Research Labos, 430 Scientific Publications including 34 Doctoral PhD, and a systematic cooperation between French and German Governments and Public Agencies on Research, succeeded to prove that the new method works.

Already able to serve Electricity to a village with 1.500 inhabitants, the pioneer project intends to reach a capacity to serve 20.000 inhabitants before 2015, as part of a larger Plan to make all Renewable Energy Resources (together with Wind, Solar, etc) able to cover more than 23% of all Electricity needs before 2020.

geothermy

- In fact, "behind the challenge" faced with the current Oil crisis, there "is a New Horizon that we can shape all together", by "creating New Tools for the Future", Fillon launched towards EU Member States.

Meanwhile, we should intensify Energy Savings, simplify Transports, and help the Poorest cope with growing Oil prices, until EU joins a World-wide lead into inventing reliable and sufficient Renewable Energy Sources, he added.

Many, technologic and other Challenges exist, but they can be overcome : F. ex. the new GeoThermic method tested at Shoultz since 1987, had provoked an Earthquake at a nearby site, close to Bale, by injecting big volumes of pressurized Water in underground broken Rocks near a Seismic Faultline in 2003. But the move was rectified later-on, by diminishing the amount and pressure of the water injected in underground rocks, so that no Earthquake is provoked.

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geothermy_map heat_data

More than 1 Billion Euros are invested by France on Scientific and Technologic Research about Sustainable Development until 2012, aiming to take a 10 years advance, there where innovation can become source of Growth, Competitivity and Jobs, which, according to some evaluations could reach more than 220.000 before 2020, Fillon observed.

During the forthcoming French EU Presidency, together with our German friends, we shall do all necessary efforts for Europe's World-wide lead against Global Warming, thanks to Energy tools able to ensure its Independence, Growth, and Citizens' well-being, he concluded.

-------------


The "Enhanced Geothermal System" (EGS) stems from pioneer research initiated by teams from France, Germany and Italy, joined also by Swiss, the U.K., and Sweden, even U.S. and Japan, since the 90ies.

In 1996, a European Economic Interest Group (GEIE) was founded, in order to exploit Electricity-produsing Heat from deep underground Rocks, including France's EDF and Germany's PfalzWerke.

In 2002, a Pilot scientific project started to be tested in Soultz-under-Forests, 50 kms north of Strasbourg.

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