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Home arrow newsitems arrow UN Spokesman on Libya: Respect Berlin ! +CoE spokesman to EF: Report ? (eve of Greek Presidency)

UN Spokesman on Libya: Respect Berlin ! +CoE spokesman to EF: Report ? (eve of Greek Presidency)

Written by ACM
Friday, 31 January 2020


*Strasbourg/Angelo Marcopolo/- Even if all UNSC Members might Not Yet Fully Agree on a New Resolution for Libya, for the moment, nevertheless, UNO has "Already Adopted" Resolutions on that Crisis before, (f.ex. on Arms' Embargo, etc), and Now Wants that "All Parties ...live up to the Commitments they made in Berlin"'s International Conference (19/1/2020), "in Writing or Verbally", strongly stressed Today the Experienced Long-Time UN Secretary General's Spokesman, Stephane Dujarric.

He was Replying to Press Questions, the Day After an UNSC Meeting at its New York Headquarters where UN's Libya Envoy, Ghassan Salamé, Denounced particularly the Direct Import of some 2.000 Foreign Fighters by Airplanes from Turkey, added to Heavy Weapons imported by Turkish Warships in Tripoli, despite avoiding Names.  This practically Confirmed the "Explicit and very Grave Violations", "by Turkish Acts, at this very Moment", "of what had been Agreed in Berlin", as Openly Denounced Earlier French President Emmanuel Macron in Paris. While MEPs at a CoE Assembly's Debate in Strasbourg had, in the meantime, slamed, inter alia, also "the Most Worrying  development" : "that Jihadi Terrorists, ..fully Armed", "have been Transported to Libya for combat" by Turkey, "just a hop away from the Italian coast", (See Infra).

Did "the Promisses Given" and "the Commitments Taken" by "Turkish President Erdogan at Berlin"'s international Conference on Libya, (as Macron reminded), only aim to Hypocriticaly Stop the surprisingly important "Advances" that the Libyan Opposition's Leader, General "Haftar was Making" on the BattleGround, "Before" Berlin", (as mainstream PressAgency "Bloomberg" observed), and Various Other Sources Spectacularly illustrated with Many concrete Documents (Photos, Videos, Satellite Maps, etc : See Infra) ?

At any case, CoE's Press Spokesman, Daniel Holtgen, speaking to "Eurofora", revealed that the PanEuropean Organisation, (where both Russia and Turkey are included among its Members), apparently "Wants to make a Report" on Libya, due to be prepared at the Eve of the forthcoming rotating CoE's Presiency by Greece, (May-November 2020), which is followed by that of Germany (November 2020-May 2021). But a Shorter Timing, between Now and the Next CoE Assembly's Plenary, on April 2020, is Not Excluded a priori.        


In particular :

- Earlier Today (31/1//2020), a Journalist queried Dujarric, during his "Noon Press Briefing", about Salamé's alleged Wish to see the UNSC "Vote asap. a Resolution" on Libya, and what the UN "wanted to have in" it.

- UNO's Spokesman replied that, "First of all", "What we (UN) would like to see is ....a Cessation of Hostilities".  And he went on to Add also : "and a full Respect for Arms' Embargo", observing that the Latter Issue had been "Already Adopted" by a Previous UNSC Resolution.

+ But the Journalist observed that, Yesterday, all UNSC Members didN't seem to Agree Yet, at least for the moment, on a New Resolution on Libya, and she Asked what UNO and its Secretary General Wanted to do Now.

>>> Interestingly, UNO's Spokesman Confirmed that New Resolution Row, for the Time being, but went on to Add :  - "What we (UNO) Need to see is ...All the Parties to Adhere to (UN) Security Council RESOLUTIONS" WHICH EXIST "ALREADY" (Comp. Supra), AND to Live up to the COMMITMENTS they made in BERLIN, whether they were in Writing or Verbally", as he stressed.

Regarding that latest Key point, the incoming Belgian UNSC Presidency, (for February 2020), reportedly Intends to Focus on Libya, and, particularly, to Start systematicaly "Monitoring" the Respect of Berlin Conference's Conclusions by the participant Countries (NDLR: Partly UPDATED).

According to the Berlin's Conference's Conclusions, of 19/1/2019, where all UNSC Permanent Members were present, the participants Committed to Refraining from “Interference in ...Libya”, among 6 Areas (''baskets') related to that Conflict.



=> But, French President Macron slamed, earlier this week in Paris, at a Press-point Together with Greek Prime Minister Mitsotakis, whah he called an "Explicit Opposition to what President Erdogan had Committed to do, during the Berlin Conference" (19/9/2019), "stressing" his "Concern" on this point :

- Indeed, "We see, these latest Days, Turkish Ships, escorted by Syrian Mercenaries, arriving on the Libyan Land. That's an Explicit and very Grave Violation of what had been Agreed in Berlin. It's a DisRespect of given Promises. It Harms Libya's Sovereignity, and Harms the Security of All Europeans and Sahelians. I want to stress it here, very Firmly. It Proves ...that the Concerns that we had evoked earlier, ....were Confirmed", President Macron Denounced.



At Berlin, mainly, "Leaders agreed Not to Intervene in Libya", stressed UNO's Envoy Salamé from the outset at his official Briefing to UNO's Security Coucil Yesterday, (send to NY in a Video-Statement from African Union's relevant meetings).

- "But, with Recent Developments on the Ground, I Regret to report that Truce holds only in Name", he Denounced.

- Inter alia, "Artillery (recently typical of Turkish Aggressions, f.ex. in Syria, where Ankara's Soldiers Avoid Direct Fight, prefering to Bomb Adversaries with Gadgets/Machines Hidden Far away) exchanges have Significantly Increased in Tripoli, these days", Salamé observed.

>>> - In particular, "at the Same Time, Foreign Fighters (i.e. armed Islamist Extremist gangs from Syria, etc), supporting the GNA, were Flown into Tripoli (withTurkish Airplanes) by the Thousands, and Deployed in Forward Locations !", UNO's Libya Envoy Denounced, for the 1st Time so Bluntly...

+ Moreover, "During that, the GNA Forces, Supported by a Foreign Sponsor (Turkey), established Advanced Air Defense Systems, throughout the Western Region : To put it Bluntly : "Hawk" Anti-AirCraft [i.e. AirPlane Downing Missiles "System"].

++ "As Recently as Tuesday (28/1/2019), the presence of Foreign Naval Assets - including WAR-SHIPS (of Turkish Army) -  was Witnessed off the Coast of Tripoli, in Addition to Cargo-Ships", reportedly full of Armored Vehicles and Tanks.

- s At least Five (5) Turkish Military Frigates, Identified one by one, were reportedly Spoted these Days in Libya's EEZ Waters, in relation with such Direct and Ostensible Heavy Weapons Deliveries by a Foreign State, (Filmed by several Videos published in the Web), including at least one Photographed Anchored (with Military Canons and the Turkish Flag) in a Libanese Seaport near Tripoli, according to Other Sources...

=> That's why UNO wants to set up asap an "International Follow-Up Committee to the Berlin Conference", including a "ceasefire Monitoring mechanism", of "great Interest" to UNSC, so that "those who Obstruct the process" of "Berlin", "can be held to Account", Salamé Warned.

Strongly Denouncing those "UnScrupulous Actors", " who Cynically nod and wink towards efforts to promote Peace and piously affirm their support for the UN", while, in fact, "they continue to double down on a Military Solution, raising the Frightening specter of a Full-scale Conflict and further Misery for the Libyan People, more Refugees, the creation of a Security Vacuum and further Interruptions to global Energy supplies", "in blatant Disregard of Libya's Sovereignty, the fundamental Rights of the Libyan People, and in flagrant Violation of international Consensus and the rules-based International Order", UNO's Libya Envoy expressed the "Hope that ... (UN) can Find (its) Unity and (its) Voice, to Halt Libya’s senseless Unraveling", "in the Coming Days", Because "too Much is at Stake, including our (UNO's) collective Credibility", as he Urgently Warned.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         


However, if Nothing is done, i.e. if Not any UN or other Sanction is not imposed at all, in the foreseable Future, particularly on Turkey, which notoriously Multiplied Manifold Blatant Violations of Libya's Sovereignity, Many Grosses Interferences in its Internal affairs, a lot of Provocations, Intrusions inside its Core Issues, etc, then, any UNO's above-mentioned "Credibility" will certainly Vanish, and Libya's entity Shattered into Pieces...

Certainly, secret Violations of Arms Embargo, and/or Usurpation of Libya's Cultural Heritage, etc., may have occured, mutatis-mutandis,  from Both Sides, several times in the Past. Opposition's Leader, General Haftar, has alread been Criticized for reportedly using a Private Russian Company, with some Hundreds of Agents, mutatis-mutandis, as also the Tripoli Government has tried to do with others, including even by ...Hiring Private Armed Gangs in order to ensure its own Security, since "Libya does Not have professional Security Forces, and the GNA (Tripoli's "Government") currently relies on Armed Groups for its Security" (sic !), as even UNO's Security Council observes Nowadays...

>>> But it's anOther, COMPLETELY DIFFERENT kind of things, when, f.ex.., Ostensibly, the Foreign Turkish Government itself, Openly Announces in Public that it Sends "about 2,000 Syrian Militiamen, to Back" the Tripoli's Government (Comp. Supra). Or,  in Addition to several "Turkish Naval Frigates, which Accompagny Cargo Ships unLoading Fighting Vehicles in Tripoli, this weeK", as "a Libyan security Official" Denounced, according to mainstream Press Agency "Bloomberg". There, the Foreign Military Interference inside Libya's Internal affairs, is, Obviously, Much more Blatant, Despite a Long Series of Condemnations by UNO, the EU, Arab League, the African Union, the Neighbouring Countries' Leaders, French-Italian-Greek-Cypriot+Egyptian MAFs, Berlin's International Conference with UN, (etc)...



- In Fact, "Countries that decide in Unilateral fashion to Intervene diplomatically and Militarily, such as Turkey, ....become part of the Problem ...  what they try to do is ...to Take Advantage of a neighbouring country, declaring an Exclusive Economic space in the sea between Turkey and Libya. This Violates the Law of the Seas, .. also ....as far as territorial waters of the Islands in the Aegean (which) ... belong to the EU". And "This is.... a country that has still Not signed the international law of the seas !", Denounced, on behalf of the Biggest Group in CoE's Assembly (PACE): that of ChristianDemocrats/EPP, during PACE's Debate on Libya, Yesterday Afternoon in Strasbourg, MEP Evripides Stylianides from Greece, (the forthcoming CoE Presidency in office: May-November 2020)...


- Ankara "has ... Manipulated the very Fragile Government of Tripoli, in order to sign, to Null and void, as Contrary ... to the ...law .., 2 Memoranda: ", pointed out, as Speaker for the Euro-Left Group, Greek MEP Georges Katrugalos, former Foreign Minister+.

-"1 of Military aid, which Violates the arms Embargo and the recent agreement of the Berlin process or the ceasefire".

+"The 2nd Memorandum is about the delimitation of the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) of Turkey and Libya to non Neighboring countries, to the Detriment of legal and legitimate rights of both Cyprus and Greece. This is not just Contrary to the international Law, but also a Violation of Geography and common Sense", he denounced.

"Even Yesterday, according to a statement by President of France Emmanuel Macron, Turkish frigates were transporting Weapons and Fighters to the country. ... All states should Refrain from Violating international Law, and from actions which might Exacerbate Divisions, Undermine Human rights and Libya's democratic transition. ...CoE should follow closely, but finally, only the Libyan themselves can Solve the problems of their country", he concluded.


- "The Libyan political *** Agreement signed on ....2015, and the action Plan of the UN SG's Special Representative for Libya of ....2017, which were Hopeful in their Time, seem almost Illusory Today", or even "Worse"..., Denounced Nowadays, speaking on behalf of the Liberal Group, the Head of the French Delegation of MEPs, Nicole Trisse.

- "The situation in Libya, far from improving, is tending more and more towards Confusion" ... "Despite the efforts of the International community to promote Cooperation between the GNA of Mr. Fayez el-Sarraj and General Haftar, the Civil War is still going on". "Several ...States are more or less openly providing military and political support to the belligerents, withOut seeking to encourage Dialogue and national Reconciliation... This situation is Regrettable and Worrying", she Criticized.

=> "A Return to the Fundamentals", "seem to us to be the only viable and credible way Forward", Trisse stressed. In particular, "CoE, ... could provide Legal Assistance for the reconstruction of a Libyan State based on Law and Democratic values".


>>> The Main  Point is that "the Berlin Conference ....has called for all international and regional Actors to Refrain from Interference  in this armed conflict" inside Libya, stressed from the outset, the Experienced, former Long-Time Foreign Minister and Prime Minister of Greece, Georges Papandreou, Now a Socialist MEP.

But, "Unfortunately, Tensions have recently heightened following the M.O.U. signed between ...Tripoli and Turkey. This Deal is a "quid pro quo": - Turkey gives you Military Backing,  If you Accept to delineate new Maritime Zones in the Mediterranean in Violation of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea !" Because "this M.O.U. Ignores the sovereign Rights of Greece and other Neighbouring Countries of the region, (as Cyprus, Egypt, etc)", he Denounced.

=> "German Bundestag's Legal department has clearly stated that such a Deal, with0ut the Consent of other Mediterranean Countries concerned, Violates the customary Law of the sea and canNot be considered as legal". + And "the International community, key Regional players, the EU, and even the internationally recognised Libyan Parliament (based at Tobruk) have made Similar protests", the MEP observed.

- Finaly, on the Substance, Giorgos Papandreou reiterated his "Long-Standing Position", on "Greece and Turkey", in such Oil/Gas Resources disputes, to "Delineate the Continental shelf through Dialogue, and if necessary going to the Hague, the Court of the Hague".


+ But, some Other MEPs appeared to have even More Dreams or, rather,  Illusions about Turkey than GP :

F.ex., Liberal Swiss MEP Alfred Heer, Pessimistically Claimed that, "if we (Europe) are really Truthful to ourselves - we have to say there is Not much we Can do, because Now Military actions is ruling Libya".

=> Therefore, he believed that "we Only can Hope together with Russia and Turkey (sic !), who are now involved in Libya, .... that we can return to a Peaceful solution, that we can have the hope for a Democratization of Libya. We hope for rule of Law, for Democracy, and for Human rights", etc...

After having Followed all various Turkish Regimes of our Era, during about 30 Years, "Eurofora" wishes "Good Luck" to Mr. Heer on that obviously Highly Controversial point !


- After widely Denouncing a larger "War in order to control Energy reserves and Pipelines" around Libya, Cyprus' MEP Georges Loukaides, ("Euro-Left" Group), slamed also the "illegal and Irrational Deal concluded between the governments of Erdogan and Fayiz es-Serrac, on the delimitation of the Turkey-Libya Maritime Zones, which constitutes a gross Violation of international Law, ...fully Disregarding the legal rights of other Coastal States and, ...specifically, Egypt and Greece. These Provocative actions of Turkey come in addition to the illegal activities it is pursuing in Cyprus' EEZ, that ...undermines ...a ...solution to the Cyprus problem, and have taken the EU to impose Sanctions on Turkey", while, "the International community should fully and unequivocally Denounce that Deal, stressing that Turkey must fully Comply with international Law".


+ In the Immediate MeanTime, However, "we are ...Concerned about reports" on "a Serious Flown of Terrorist Fighters, from Jihadist Organisations, which are currently based in the Idlib province of Syria, to Tripoli in Libya, (Comp. Supra). This is Dangerous !", Warned even Dissident Turkish MEP of the current "Opposition", (Socialist), Ahmet Cevikoz.

=> Fustigating "Massive Population Displacements and growing migration, as well as the increasing Danger of Terrorist elements reaching out to our own societies", he added that his Party recently "Voted Against the Bill to Send Troops to Libya", (as well as "All the Opposition Parties" in Ankara's Parliament).

+ Cevikoz went on to point at "the UNSC ...Resolution 2259", according to which, "the Libyan Political Agreement, signed in Skhirat on ...2015, is still the only Framework in which an end can be brought to the Libyan crisis", as it "was confirmed in Berlin ... International Conference on Libya (19/1/2020), where the institutions deriving from the Libyan Political Agreement continue to receive International Recognition". Thus, "Legitimacy in Libya ....include(s) All the Institutions, Both in Tripoli, and in Tobruk", i.e. also the Libyan Parliament, (which supports General Haftar).


- On the Contrary, Turkish pro-Government MEP Ziya Altunyaldiz, at a delayed, written Intervention, focused on Claiming that the only "Legitimate Representative of Libyans" would be the UnElected "GNA" in Divided Tripoli (which still controls Only a Small Part of the Country Nowadays), Not even Mentioning the existence of the Elected Parliament, (which is also Internationaly Recognized, Member of the IPU at Geneva, Interlocutor of the UNO, etc), currently located at Tobruk, (Comp. Supra), after Islamist Militia's Aggressions obliged it to Leave Tripoli some years ago, in the Past...

+ Moreover, a Strange Ambiance emerged from the 3 Delayed Interventions of Turkish pro-Regime MEPs, presented in Written Texts, at the very Last Minute, After the End of CoE's Debate, Altunyaldiz, Emine Nur Gunay, and Zeynep Yildiz :

- Turkey's Foreign Military interference inside Libya serves only to ..."create a convenient Atmosphere on the road of Peace" (sic !), and promote "Dialogue", "in order to Halt the Military Conflict", with "a Constructive attitude in accordance with International Law" (re-sic !), working for "a Peaceful, Political Solution", according to the conclusions of "Berlin" Conference, (and so on, until an Angel Flies at the Sky)...

=> So, that's Why Turkey has Started an UnPrecedented, Huge Foreign Military Intervention Libya, signed a expensive Military/Defense Deal, paid by Economic Concessions from Tripoli's Fragile and Instable Regime, send Dozens of Armed Frigates/War-Ships to Tripoli's Seaport, Exported there Foreign Turkish Army Troops, practically took over the Direction of Military Strikes, shiped into Libya many Armoured Vehicles and Tanks with Big Cargos, Boosted Deadly "Artillery" Strikes against Libyan opponents, (as Turks recently did also in the Invasion of Syrian Kurdish Regions, Killing People just by Pressing a Buton at a Machine Hidden in a Far Away hole, withOut Daring go Fighting directly, Face to Face), and even Imported "by Thousands" (UNO) Dangerous Foreign Fighters, Armed Gangs of Islamist Extremists, among the various Terrorists notoriously at Idlib (Syria), who were "Deployed in Forward Locations, alongside Libyan forces" (UNO)... (Comp. Supra).

Now it becomes Clear what UNO's Libya Envoy, Ghassan Salamé, had in mind when he Denounced, just Yesterday, at the UNSC, those "UNSCRUPULOUS Actors", " who Cynically nod and wink towards efforts to promote Peace and piously affirm their support for the UN", while, in fact, "they continue to double down on a Military Solution, raising the Frightening specter of a Full-scale Conflict and further Misery for the Libyan People, more Refugees, the creation of a Security Vacuum and further Interruptions to global Energy supplies", "in blatant Disregard of Libya's Sovereignty, the fundamental Rights of the Libyan People, and in flagrant Violation of international Consensus and the rules-based International Order", (Comp. Supra).






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ECHR's President to "EuroFora" on Journalists Gongadze and Adali murders : Principles must apply to all States, without discrimination.

+ ECHR's Statistics on Freedom of Expression (See below).

 European Court of Human Rights' President, Jean-Paul Costa, questioned by "EuroFora" on Journalists' murders, as in Gongadze and Adali's cases etc., strongly stressed all CoE Member States' obligation to make efficient Investigations to find and punish those responsible, and underlined that ECHR's case-law's principles must apply to all without any discrimination.

His call was clearly supported by various Top MEPs who denounced a risk of "Double Standards" if some Journalists' murders are investigated, while others don't.

To avoid such risks, CoE's Parliamentary Assembly adopted a Resolution, on the occasion of Ukranian Journalist Gongadze's murder, "stressing", as a matter of general Principle, "the importance it attaches to the safety of Journalists and political activists, especially those linked to opposition groups, in ALL member states of the CoE". All "crimes against journalists and political activists must be investigated ... as a matter of priority, without political interference".

Costa was replying to "EuroFora"s question on the fact that, after CoE's Committee of Ministers, also CoE's Assembly had just adopted a Resolution on Gongadze murder case, based on an ECHR's judgement of 2005, asking a full Investigation from Ukraine, who has found and condemned  in 10 years of jail 2 executants, but not yet the instigators.

While nothing similar was yet done for dissident Turkish Cypriot Kutlu Adali's murder, with 5 bullets shot at his head out of his Family's home in the territories of Cyprus occupied by Ankara's army, despite another ECHR's judgement of the same year 2005, and despite Turkey's claim that nobody was found among those responsible for the murder, and that there was nothing more to do..

In order to be credible and efficient, CoE's mechanisms shouldn't find a way to at least ask for full investigations of all Journalists' murders anywhere they might be committed, without exceptions ?


- "On the larger question that you raised, I'd like to say, since we are in a period of stock-taking on ECHR's 50 Years, that the Court's case-law developed certain concepts ....such as the Positive obligations of States, part of which are also the procedural obligations", started to reply ECHR's President.

 - "Whenever Journalists, Lawyers, Defenders of Human Rights, or even simple Citizens are murdered, the States are held responsible, not only if its their own security forces' agents who committed these murders, but also if they didn't make sufficiently substantial and efficient Investigations", he stressed.

- "I want to strongly underline that we (ECHR) have found in many cases numerous violations of Articles 2 and 3 against States, ....(about) murders or torture, ...because they didn't make enough Investigations in order to try to find and punish those responsible".

- "We (ECHR) do that vis-a-vis all 47 (CoE) Member States, without any discrimination".

"Naturally, the circumstances in each particular case may be differend, and we can't ommit to apply the rules of proof, or the rules of criminal procedure".

"But we try, by all means, to apply these principles of our case-law, to all States", he concluded.


      Costa's call was strongly supported by several Top CoE MEPs, from various Political areas

- "To investigate the murder of one Journalist, and not of another, looks like Double Standards", denounced the President of EuroLeft Group in CoE's Assembly, Dutch MEP Tiny Cox.  

- "What is the reason ? Politics or specificity of a case ? Of course, if Cyprus and Turkey are involved, it's always a Political case"..

- "Murders of Journalists should always be fully investigated, because killing Journalists is not only killing persons, but also killing Free Press".  "We (CoE's Assembly) should do our outmost to help People who are working on Free Press and they are under threat or murdered".

Because for Free Politics, Free Press is a pre-requisitive : Parliamentarians  cannot  function without a Free Press. Not investigating, is not protecting ourselves".

So we should investigate all Journalists' murders : We are talking about Gongadze, about the Cypriot man (Adali), about the Journalist murdered in Moscow one week ago, etc", Cox concluded

- "CoE can' look at these cases differently. CoE can't wear Blinckers  !".
- "If the one is investigated, so has to be also the other. Why there wasn't full investigation ? Why's that ?", wondered British  Socialist MEP, Alan Meale.

- "A good idea" would be to "make a Motion for Resolution", and "join all Journalists' murders. Adali and Gongadze etc", said to "EuroFora" EU Parliament Political affairs Committee's President, Goran Lindbland, ChristianDemocrat MEP from Sweden.

(See also earlier News at "EuroFora" on similar issues).

ECHR's Statistics on Freedom of Expression :

    Almost Half of condemnations by ECHR for violations of Freedom of Expression in 2008, concern Turkey : 20 out of a total of 48 for all CoE's Member States.

    Russia, Poland, France and Moldova were condemned only 3 times. Romania, Greece, Portugal, 2 times, and the other CoE Member States only 1 time, or none.
    During the last Decade : 1998 - 2008, Turkey was condemned for violating Freedom of Expression in ..169 cases, while Austria only in 24.

    France and Moldova in 14 and 13, respectively, closely followed by Russia and Poland with 11 and 10, respectively. The rest of CoE Member States had less than ten condemnations.    


2009 EU Elections were won by Parties against Technocracy and Turkey's controversial EU bid, while the 1999-2004 Majority Abstention trend decelerated. What should be done in 2009-2014 ?


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