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Home arrow newsitems arrow CoE: Turkey Repeat-Offender in DisRespect of ECHR Judgements on Cyprus' Refugees + Missing People

CoE: Turkey Repeat-Offender in DisRespect of ECHR Judgements on Cyprus' Refugees + Missing People

Written by ACM
Thursday, 06 December 2018
coe_comittee_of_ministers_eurofora_400


*Strasbourg/Angelo Marcopolo/- For the 2nd Time in an Exceptional Row, CoE's Highest Political body, that of its 47 Member States' strong (including Russia) Committee of Ministers, slamed anew Turkey's Persisting Refusal to Cooperate on monitoring the execution of ECHR Judgements, which have notoriously Condemned Ankara for a series of Massive and Continuing Violations of Human Rights of Greek-Cypriot Refugees/Displaced persons and even "Missing" People and their Families, since the 1974 Military Invasion and Occupation of the Northern Part of EU Member Cyprus, (See, already : http://www.eurofora.net/newsflashes/news/turkeuyrefusescooperationwithcoe.html + http://www.eurofora.net/newsflashes/news/eucoereactonturkeyrefusaltocooperate.html , etc).


---------------------


    Turkey not only Refused to Participate in CoE's relevant Discussions (Extending now on December 2018 the Negative Stance that it Adopted since last September), and did Not Cooperate with its Committee of Ministers in its Task to supervise ECHR's Judgments' Execution, but even Persisted to its Long Abstention from Paying the Just Satisfaction awarded by the European Court to the Victims, in more than 30 Cases of Greek Cypriot Refugees/Displaced Persons, and in the landmark "Varnavas" Case of 9 "Missing" People, (at least 2 of whom had been found "Detained at the Time of their Disappearance", as CoE reminded), as well as on the cases of Homes and other private Properties of "Enclaved" Greek Cypriots inside the Occupied Territories Controlled by Ankara's Army, who are included in the overall, Inter-State Case of "Cyprus v. Turkey" (which concerns almost All Violations of Human Rights committed by Ankara in Cyprus).

    => According to the Officially Published CoE's Decisions, the PanEuropean Organisation for Human Rights, Democracy and Rule of Law, expressed its "Deep Regret" anew for "the decision of Turkey Not to Participate in the Discussions" of CoE's Committee of Ministers on all these affairs, 'and called, once again, on Turkey to Co‑operate with the Committee", while Also "Insist(ing) again Firmly on the ...Obligation of Turkey to Pay the just satisfaction Awarded by the European Court" in those cases, "withOut further Delay".


    + For that purpose, CoE also Decided "to Resume Consideration" on the issues of Greek Cypriot "Missing" Persons (Both on Compensations and Investigations for their Fate), and Refugees/Displaced persons (Compensations), the Earliest possible :  I.e. at its Next Meeting for Human Rights, on "March 2019".


    This will be Closely Followed by CoE's Examination of "Individual Measures" that Turkey has to take in the 33 Cases of GC Refugees/Displaced persons, as well as on the "Information" that "certain (COE Member States' National) Delegations requested" concerning "the Situation of the ... Property" of the Refugee/Displaced person in "Loizidou case" (that Turkey curiously seeks to ..."Close", withOut even Replying to Questions ! See Infra), on "June 2019".


    Further, "the Issue of the Property Rights of the Enclaved persons", in the Inter-State case "Cyprus v. Turkey"), will be resumed on "September 2019".


--------------------------


    Significantly, this important Meeting, which durated during 3 Days  (November 4 to 6, 2018) , was Chaired by French Ambassador Jean-Baptiste  Mattei, (according to an established practice), just a few Months before France takes over CoE's rotating Presidency, from May to November 2019.


------------------------------------------


    Cyprus Denounced the fact that, at least in the well-known Refugee/Displaced persons' "Case of Xenides-Arestis", "almost 12 Years (sic !) have Elapsed since Just Satisfaction fell Due", i.e. Turkey's Refusal to Pay the Compensation judged by ECHR, resulted in "the Longest Default in the History of the (European) Convention system" !...


    + Moreover, Cypus had "Urged" the CoE to "Resist" to Turkey's "Blackmail", which is notoriously Seeking mainly a ..."Closure" of the Most Famous, "Loizidou" case, among Refugees/Displaced persons(added even to 2 Other such cases), Threatening, Otherwise, to Persist even Longer in its Refusal to Participate at CoE's Deliberations in all those other affairs (Comp. Supra). But, such "Closure(s)", Paradoxicaly, ..."would Reward Turkey for its Non-Payment, and, in particular, for its Non-Cooperaton with (CoE's) Committee" of Ministers, and "it would be utterly Wrong to End (CoE's) Supervision, in circumstances where Turkey Seeks to make Closure a Condition for its future Cooperation".


   Simply Because,


-  in Addition to the Fact that there are still Many pertinent UnAnswered "Question"s in this Case (Loizidou, etc), some Already Raised also by Other National Delegations, (See Infra),


+ + "FurtherMore",,Otherwise, a "Closure" of the remaining Loizidou affair and/or Other 2 Cases singled out by Ankara, "would send a most Unfortunate Signal to any Other State that might, in Future, contemplate embarking upon a Similar Policy of Non-Cooperation, in order to Pressurise the (CoE's) Committee into Favouring its point of view", so that "Undermining the work of (CoE's) Committee" Risks  to become "a Practice that is Tolerated, and, in fact, bears fruit", Cyprus Warned.


------------------------------


    As for the still UnAnswered Questions in the Landmark "Loizidou" case, they are related with the most Fundamental Human Rights' Key-Issue in Refugees/Displaced persons cases, both in Europe and Worldwide :


    - That for "RESTITUTION" of the Victims' Family Homes and/or other Private Properties, as Preferable to mere Financial Compensation, since it Helps much More (and Often is really Necessary, in Practice) for their voluntary RETURN to their Ancestral Land, (as it's Stressed even by UNO's most Important Report and Guiding "Principles", drafted by Professor Pinheiro, and Endorsed by UNHCR, UNHCHR and UNO's Secretary General, at nearby Geneva : Comp., f.ex.  ...). Cyprus' Government also finds these Questions "Vitally Important".


    Indeed, Turkey Refused any "Restitution" of Miss Loizidou's properties (as for Most Other Greek Cypriot Refugees/Displaced persons) in the Occupied Territories of Cyprus, controlled by Ankara's Military, by Claiming that this would have become "ImPossible", mainly because they would have been "Transferred" to so-called "Turkish Cypriot Refugees", (in fact, People who had freely Left the Non-Occupied, but Government-controlled, Areas, leaving their belongings "by way of Exchange"), and, Afterwards, her Properties would have undergone so "considerable Changes", that these would "Prevent the ....Restitution", (Even ... "After the Solution of Cyprus' [Political] Problem" !)... Thus, Turkey reportedly offered to the Greek Cypriot Refugee/IDP, Only a mere Financial Compensation, which, in addition, appeared too much Lower than what had been previously attributed by ECHR (See Infra)...


    => But, this Raised a series of Questions, which have Not yet been Answered by the Turkish side, as Cyprus observed :


    (1) Where is the EVIDENCE that those alleged Turkish Cypriots would have left the Government-controlled Areas, leaving behind their Belongings for exchange, and to whom would have been Transferred the properties of Greek Cypriot Refugee Loizidou, in the Territories of Cyprus still Occupied by Ankara's Militay ? No Reply yet...


    (2) WHEN were reportedly Transferred to those Turkish Cypriots the above-mentioned Properties of that Greek Cypriot Refugee/IDP ? Before, or After ECHR's JUDGEMENT of 1996, which, notoriously, "Confirmed" that she Remained the Lawful Owner ?


    (3) Which are the alleged "CHANGES" that Turkey Claims on the Greek Cypriot Refugee/IDP's properties ? On the Contrary, at least "Some of that Property" seems to be "EMPTY and UnDeveloped", therefore, "so, in principle, Available for Restitution", Cyprus observed...


    (4) Why was the Turkish Offer (for Finanial Compensation) so LOW ? Cyprus calculated, indeed, that they would have "Valued the use of the Property at barely HALF the rate awarded by the ECHR" for a previous period...


+ Moreover, Significantly,  the Chair of a Controversial "Immovable Property Commission" unilaterally set up by the Turkish side in the Occupied Territories of Cyprus, controlled by Ankara's Invasion and Occupation Military, claiming to give there a Monopoly in Dealing with Greek Cypriot Refugees/Displaced persons' Rights, Quoted in a Press Article ("Diyalog", 24/3/2018), has reportedly stated that, inter alia, also that "....the More LAND is TURKIFIED, the Right of the Greek Cypriot side to demand Land in the North will be Abolished" (sic !)...

=> In Consequence, it "would be Manifestly UnJust" to "Close the Case", while "Turkey is (still) under an Obligation to provide Answers to these Questions, so that the (CoE's) Committee may be in a position to take a fully Informed Decision on that matter", instead of "resolv(ing) those UnCertainties withOut Evidence", Cyprus concluded.


---------------------------------------------


On the Contrary, it's Only in 2 Other Cases, among those 33 ECHR Judgements still Pending for Execution, in various Individual Affairs of Refugees/Displaced persons, that "Friendly Agreements" were reached between the Appliquants and Turkey, after the First "Surrendered ...the Ownership of their Properties", and "Turkey has Complied with the terms of those Arrangements", the Government of Cyprus pointed out, apparently Concluding that these 2 Individual cases, may be, Exceptionally, Closed.


Something which, Obviously, isn't but a Tiny part among More than +180.000 - 200.000  Greek Cypriot Refugees/Displaced persons, who were Obliged to Flee Turkey's Military Invasion and Ocupation of the Northern Territories of Cyprus by Ankara's Army since 1974, and are Still Hindered Today to Return Back to Family Homes and Ancestral Land.

A Few Years Ago, around 2016, UN-sponsored Top Level Talks on Cyprus, mainly at nearby Switzerland, reportedly had managed to Mark an exceptional Advance, including, partiçularly, on an eventual Draft Plan with Map for Refugees/Displaced persons' possible Return, which was, exchanged for the 1st Time between the parties.


But, shortly Afterwards, all that was Blocked mainly because Ankara's Instisted to Keep, not only a Number of Troops in Cyprus, even After a Political Solution, but even a Claim for more Unilateral Military Interventions, whenever, in the Future, Turkey might deem necessary.

(Something that, on the Contrary, Both Greece and the UK, accepted to Stop, as Cyprus naturally wished to Prevent Other Tragedies, as in the Past, by Building, this Time, a "Normal, Independent and Sovereign State", that New UNO Secretary General, Antonio Guterres, reportedly found Natural).


Following that, Later-on, the Turkish-Cypriot side even, reportedly, Asked and Withdrew the Map that had been Earlier exchanged and agreed, (Comp. Supra)...


-------------------------


Meanwhile, this week, Both COE's Secretariat and Cyprus' Government, reminded the Fact that, Already 4 Years Ago, since 2014, CoE's Committee of Ministers, (facing Turkey's Failure to Pay, at least, the Compensations awarded by ECHR's Judgements to several Greek Cypriot Refugees/Displaced persons), had adopted 2 Resolutions Warning Ankara that its Continued Refusal to Pay that Just Satisfaction awarded by ECHR to the Victims of the "Varnavas" Case ("Missing" Persons and their Families), as well as to 33 Cases of Refugees/Displaced persons in the so-called "Xenides -Arestis Group", was in Flagrand Conflict with its International Obligaions, Not Only as a Contracting Party to the PanEuropean Conention on Human Rights, but Also as a CoE's Member State...


=> Obviously, the Double Supplementary Fact that such a Problem (of Refusal to Pay ECHR-awarded Compensations to the Victims) still Persists for Turkey, even on 2018, to which was Recently Added even an UnPrecedented Refusal to Cooperate with CoE for the Execution of ECHR's Judgements, (Comp. Supra), makes Ankara's position inside the CoE, even More Problematic...

It's in such a particularly "Hot" Context, f.ex. that an Exasperated Appliquant Refugee/IDP, who had already Waited ... 13 Years (between 1997 and 2010) for an ECHR Judgement Condemning Turkey for Violating his Human Rights, later Added to anOther + 8 Years More (2010 - 2018+), withOut any Payment, until now, by Ankara of the Just Satisfaction ordered by the ECHR, (=> thus Resulting in ... 21 Years of Delay : 1997 - 2018 !), suddenly erupted :


- CoE's Committee of Ministers  should "Go Beyond Literary Decisions, that are Repeatedly Ignored" by Turkey,  "and take Practical Measures to EnForce and achieve Execution of the ... ECtHR Judgement", he suggested in a Letter send to Strasbourg :


=> "To this end", f.ex., CoE should "Issue a Final Warning" to Turkey, "to Immediately Execute the Judgement on Just Satisfaction, (issued 8 Years Ago), since Failure to Execute the Judgement would indicate that :


"1. Turkey Continuously Breaches, and does Not fully Implement the European Convention on Human Rights, and, Consequently, does Not Meet anymore the Copenhagen eligibility Criteria (needed in order) to Be Candidate for Accession to the EU",


"2. there is ground for a process for Expulsion of Turkey from the CoE, due to Violating its Statutes".


+° Also, if" Turkey "Fails Again to Implement the Judgment", CoE's "Committee of Ministers" could "Initiate a Process leading into Confiscating Assets/Holdings" of Ankara "in a European Country; ( e.g. France, where both ECtHR and CoE are Based), for Payment of the above", he finally suggested...


It's a Scandalous Fact that, meanwhile, several Victims of Human Rights' Violations by Turkey in Cyprus have already Started to ...Die, Passing Away in Old Age, while vainly Waitibng for Ankara to Implement ECHR's Judgements, (See, f.ex.: http://www.eurofora.net/newsflashes/news/turkeyblocksechrjudgementswhilevictimsdie.html, etc).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Former long-time President of ECHR, Luzius Wildhaber, from Switzerland, was the 1st to ask sincere "Excuses", for the Death of an Old Woman Refugee, who disappeared withOut even seeing an ECHR Judgement implemented in her case, after Waiting for Decades : - "This is Not Normal, and Must Not Happen again !", President Wildhaber had said then, sincerely moved, in Reply to a Question by "Eurofora"s co-Founder, (Published then at "TCWeekly").

 

(../..)


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 politkovskaya_gongadze_adali_400

Hu Jia's prize brings SAKHAROV's wife to "EuroFora" on murders of Journalists Politkofskaya, Gongadze and Adali :

- Elena Bonner : "All Journalists' murders must be fully investigated", without Double Standards.                                                                                    

During a special Mega-Event to celebrate 20 Years of SAKHAROV Prize for "Freedom of Thought", attributed in 2008 by EU Parliament to jailed Chinese Cyber-Dissident Hu JIA, the move was reinforced by strongly criticizing the persisting impunity in three cases of Journalists' Murders, such as POLITKOVSKAYA in Russia, GONGADZE in Ukraine, and ADALI in Turkish-occupied part of Cyprus.

Any bureaucratic doubt about whether Cyber-dissidents like Hu JIA might have, or not, a right to be protected as all Journalists must be, particularly when they take risks to search, find and publish original and critical News on issues of general interest to the society, could not resist to the emotion provoked by the message of his Wife, Zeng JINYAN spectacularly transmitted at a big screen in EU Parliament's hemicycle :

- "The most important and most interesting thing he did was to ... say the Truth :.. to write about the phenomena he observed... He never stopped Publishing.. on websites, so that the Public could learn about the reality .. and understand it.  In my view, this has been his greatest contribution", stressed the young wife of the jailed man, eager to cite also the cases of other critical journalists who faced various kinds of "harassment".

 - "Welcoming all those who have suffered for defending Human Rights", EU Parliament's President, German MEP Hans Gert POETTERING, who had invited to Strasbourg all former Sakharov prize-winners from various Countries throughout the World, said that "China needs Europe, and Europe needs China : A great nation" with which "we want to have a good relationship", "association and ..friendship". "But we are never going to stop our fight for Human Rights, and No Government can expect this from us".

    - "It's impossible  to achieve goals of Peace, if Human Rights are left out. In fact, Peace and Human Rights are intrinsequaly linked", added POETTERING.

    It's in this spirit that MEPs adopted, on Thursday, a Resolution denouncing that "the criminal
investigation and trial following the murder of (a) Journalist ...raises serious concerns with regard to transparency and respect for the rule of law", when a "brutal killing has not yet been fully investigated and solved in a satisfactory way".

    The text refered to dissident Journalist "Anna POLITOVSKAYA", a critic of Tchechen conflict, killed some years ago in Moscow, where Russian Authorities have found, arrested and are currently judging two executants, while also searching to arrest also a 3rd one, allegedly escaped in Belgium. But they have not yet found the instigators.

     Similar texts were adopted recently also on dissident Ukranian Journalist Georgiy GONGADZE's murder, for which Ukranian Authorities have at least found, arrested and condemned 2 executants to 12 and 13 Years of jail, but not yet the instigators. For that purpose, they recently accepted an International Experts team to participate to the investigations.     

But, it's only for the Murder of dissident Turkish Cypriot Journalist ADALI, in the occupied territories of Cyprus, that Turkey has NOT yet found ANYONE responsible, and even claimed recently inside CoE that it would be "impossible" to do so !    

These astonishing differences exist despite the fact that ECHR condemned alike Ukraine and Turkey with 2 Judgements on the same year : 2005, for the murders of  Journalists GONGADZE and ADALI, strong critics of Corruption in Ukraine, and of Ankara's policies on mass-influx of Turkish Settlers in the Occupied Territories of Cyprus, respectively.    

Regarless of that, CoE's Committee of Ministers, who is entrusted with the duty to supervise execution of ECHR's judgements, has just asked Ukraine's Government to reply to further questions on Gongadze's murder before March 2009, while Turkey, curiously, got a longer postponement for answering questions on Adali's murder, until June...   

A comparison of these cases, raises serious questions about Double Standards :

------------------------

On TRANSPARENCY :
--------------------------
    On Gongadze's murder, CoE's body speaks even about the participation of
"an INTERNATIONAL group of Experts" in the Investigation, (f.ex. of "Tape Recordings"), accepted by Ukraine.
    On the contrary, on Adali's murder, CoE is obliged to repeatedly ask (for a 2nd
time) Turkey whether, at least, it informed the victims' Family, or not...
------------------------------
- On EFFICIENCY :
-----------------------
On Gongadze's murder, CoE formally "recalls that the Committee (of Ministers) ..URGED the Ukranian authorities.. to TAKE ALL NECESSARY INVESTIGATIVE STEPS TO ACHIEVE CONCRETE and VISIBLE RESULTS in the INVESTIGATION, aimed at the Identification of the INSTIGATORS and Organisers of the Murder", and "STRONGLY INVITED the Ukranian Authorities to provide information on the PROGRESS IN THE INVESTIGATION", before MARCH 2009.

But, on Adali's murder, on the contrary, CoE's body merely .. "took note" of the "arguments presented by" Cyprus, which denounce the absence of any proof of new "investigation" by Turkey. Following Turkey's own suggestion (!), it simply "noted" that there is "no limitation period" for "any new element" to "lead potentialy (sic !) to a Re-Opening of the Investigation". Without saying who might find any such "new" fact, since Turkey stoped searching... It also POSTPONED the issue until .. JUNE  !
-----------------------
 - On the PUNISHMENT OF THOSE RESPONSIBLE :
----------------------
 -  On Gongadze's murder case, Ukranian Authorities already arrested and condemned, at least 2 suspects, to 12 and 13 Years of jail. And on Politkovskaya's murder at least 2 suspects are judged, and a 3rd one "wanted".

On the contrary, on Adali's murder case, the Turkish authorities simply claim that "it had not been possible to obtain new .. information .. on the basis of which criminal charges could be brought against ANY person" !...

Moreover,  a LETTER sent by Turkey ...2 Years after CoE's 2006 call to re-investigate anew Adali's murder case, is totally EMPTY of Facts ! As Cypus' Delegation denounced earlier, Turkey's Letter ONLY CLAIMS that a "New Investigation" was made without any result, but does NOT even cite ANY FACT to prove it :

F.ex.,on the crucial issue of the "MOTIVATIONS" behind Adali's murder, noted by ECHR, Turkey MERELY CLAIMS that "all allegations  were investigated; without result", but OMITS ANY FACT TO PROVE IT !..(It doesn't even remind which were these "allegations").. .

+ On ECHR's astonishment that the Turkish Occupation regime didn't produce any "BALLISTIC REPORT" on the Shots which murdered Adali, Turkey again repeats, 12 years later, that, still, even until now, "it  was not possible to obtain the BalisticReport"...

- As for the astonishing absence of key-WITNESSES' Testimonies, denounced by ECHR, Turkey agains repeats various pretexts avoiding to reveal anything, (Fex. that a person "left" the Occupied Territories  "on 2002", or that another witness was heard, but without revealing nothing of what he said, etc).

Turkey obviously "FAILS TO MEET THE CRITICISM made BY THE COURT" for lack of any efficient Investigation in Adali's case, concluded Cyprus' Government.
---------------------------------------------
Replying to our Question which COMPARED these 3 outstanding cases of "JOURNALISTS MURDERS", Adali, Gongadze and Politkovskaya, in order to avoid "Double Standards" by asking from Ukraine and Russia more than what is asked EU candidate Turkey, many European personalities were critical /

They criticised Ankara's recent claim at the CoE to stop investigating, because it would be "impossible to find anyone" responsible for the 5 bullet shots which killed Kutlu ADALI in front of his Family Home, contrary to the other two Journalists' murders, where Ukraine and Russia at least arrested the executants, searching now for the instigators :
----------------------------------

imag0103_400

    - "Where was that ? In Turkish Occupied Cyprus ? WITHOUT ANY DOUBT : Any murder of Journalist should be investigated in full ! All these Murders must be investigated !", replied the famous SAKHAROV's wife, Elena BONNER to our question on Adali's case, compared to Gongadze and Politofskaya.

    Elena Bonner spoke us EXCLUSIVELY shortly after being honored by the President
of EU Parliament on the occasion of 20 Years of her husband's SAKHAROV Prize.

    A strong personality, Sakharov's wife even had to struggle against an anonymous EU staffer who, astonishingly, tried to stop her speaking when h heard our question on "Turkey" (!) : - "Please, let me translate, she continues
speaking, don't stop us !", had to cry Sakharov's daughter, (a Journalist
herself), who was translating her mothers' reply, (obliged to speak louder to
make her voice heard despite the harassment).. (= + Audio Proof !)

    Earlier, Elena Bonner also fustigated "Double Standards" at another case, on
Western countries' attitude vis a vis Kosovo and the Kurds : -F.ex. "You have
recognized a few 400.000 Kosovars as an "independent" country, but you still
deny that to 30 millions of Kurds in Turkey !", she denounced.
-----------------------------
    - "This (ADALI's murder) is an issue which should be pursued by the Committee
for Human Rights. That's why we have one, and it's its duty to examine cases of
Journalists' murders as the one you referred to. You should bring the case in
front of that Committee", suggested in reply to our question on Adali, EU
Parliament's President, German MEP Hans Gert POETTERING.

    - "It's impossible  to achieve goals of PEACE, if HUMAN RIGHTS are left out :
in fact, Peace and Human Rights are intrinsequaly linked", added POETTERING.
--------------------------------------
    + "For us (European/International Federation of Journalists) it's clear :
Whenever a Journalist is Murdered, the Investigation should continue until
those Responsible are found !", replied earlier to another question on ADALI
EFJ/IFJ's Secretary General, Aidan WHITE.

    Speaking as a matter of General Principle, White asked us for "concrete data"
on the execution of ECHR's judgement on Adali case, in order to "look at it in
depth" and "make a formal statement", in comparison with the other Murdered
Journalist case, also pending at CoE's  Ministers for completing its execution,
on Ukranian Gongadze.
----------------------------------------------------
     From EU Rapporteur on Human Rights, vice-President of EU Parliament Liberties' Committee, MEP Giusto CATANIA, we were told that, since there is an ECHR judgement in both Adali and Gongadge's cases, "Turkey must naturally execute the judgement and make a full and efficient investigation, until those responsible for the Journalist's murder are found and punished".

    Even if "we (Catania's "EuroLeft" Group) support Turkey's EU perspectives, this does not mean that Ankara should not behave properly. On the contrary, it means that they have to meet tough conditions, particularly on Human Rights", was added on the occasion of Adali's murder case.

    Moreover, "since you raise the issue of Mr. Adali's muder as a part of a Series of Journalist's murders, including fex. Gongadze, Politkovskaya, ao., tthen we (EU) could also act together with CoE's Commissioner on Human Rights, Thomas HAMMARBERG, it was suggested.

    - "We (EU) must step up efforts against the problem of IMPUNITY : Real Peace cannot exist without Justice",  stressed also this week at EU Parliament in Strasbourg, French Minister on Human Rights, Mrs Rama YADE.
------------------------
                     

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