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Home arrow newsitems arrow ECB's "New Face of €uro" doers to EuroFora : Towards a New Global Phase for €uro ?

ECB's "New Face of €uro" doers to EuroFora : Towards a New Global Phase for €uro ?

Written by ACM
Thursday, 10 January 2013

 

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*Frankfurt/ECB/Angelo Marcopolo/- After a 1st Decade (2002-2012) during which €uro emerged out of the blue and succeeded to equal US Dollar in the Value of Banknotes circulating Worldwide, as ECB's Head, Mario Draghi stressed tonight in Frankfurt at a ceremony with journalists, including "€uroFora", ECB staff, Diplomats, Experts, etc., the "New Face of the €uro", as was called the beginning of a New Series of BankNotes from 2013, due to replace those initially used until now (See Infra), might well go far beyond that initial achievement, as €uroArea's real potential, despite a recent strengthening of its Financial Governance Tools, has not yet been unleashed in Real Economy, still weak in 2013, before a gradual amelioration later this year, particularly because crucial Structural Reforms are still delayed, but also since Global Uncertainties, among which, (even if he didn't mention it explicitly), USA's forthcoming Fiscal Deal between President Obama and the New US Congress on March 2013, seems to be a main factor, that the ambition for a €uro's stronger role in Global Economy might equilibrate in the Future.

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ECB's experienced Press Director, Regina Schûller, speaking to "EuroFora", didn't exclude that such USA developments might indeed affect €uroZone, in one way or another, but prefered to keep a "no comment" stance vis a vis the American Economy, since ECB, as a matter of general principle,  usually doesn't give advise on what Others should do, or not.


Nevertheless, Draghi had already pinpointed, earlier today, at "GeoPolitical issues and Imbalances in Major Industrial Countries," (f.ex. as USA's Record -High Foreign Debt, strongly criticized by the Republican opposition which persist to ask for drastic Spending Cuts), as one among the "Risks surrounding the Economic Outlook of the €uroArea".  


Because ECB's estimation that €uroZone's current "Economic Weakness ..(is)  expected to extend into 2013", but, "later in 2013, Economic Activity should gradually Recover", as Draghi anounced today, depends also on the assumption that "Global Demand should Strengthen", "supporting (€uroZone's) Export Growth".     

 

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But, when he was asked by a collegue Journalist about ECB's views on what "seems to be a broad Rethinking  among some ...around the World on Monetary Policy strategy", since "the Bank of England is rethinking Inflation targeting", while "the (American) Fed has indicated their long-term guidance on Rates", etc.,  and whether he had " any Comments on what (his)colleagues around the World are doing", and if "there any consideration that (ECB)might do anything like that in the Future ?", Draghi, indeed, avoided a full reply :


-  "I don’t want to comment in detail, really", "on (that) Question", he admitted (keeping the attitude that Schûller indicated to "EuroFora" : Comp. Supra). "But", "the bottom line of this, after some reflection", is that "each Central bank has its Own Institutional set-up, has its own statutory Objectives, and its Mandate. Within this institutional set-up, within the statutory objectives, each central bank tries to steer Private sector Expectations. As far as our (ECB's) Mandate goes, namely maintaining Price Stability, I think we’ve shown how to do it. And, basically, Markets Understood", Draghi simply replied, referring to the Measures taken by €uroArea since 2011-2012, (See "EuroFora"s NewsReports mainly from December 2011 up to December 2012 EU Summits from Brussels, as well as Infra).
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Similarly, at another Question on "the issue of Global central banking in 2013", where "it appears that more Central Banks may be either explicitly or implicitly looking at the Exchange Rate as a Tool, when other policy tools are exhausted", Draghi rejected the view that "if the ECB is just focusing on Price Stability", then, there would "be collateral damage to the euro area, if (he was) the Only one out there talking about Price Stability, while other central banks are experimenting in these Different ways to help their Economies" :


-  "I Never Comment on Exchange Rates", ECB's Chief merely stressed from the outset, but he went on to immediately add also that, "however", the exchange rate is certainly a very Important element as far as Growth and Price Stability are concerned, and we certainly use it as one of the elements in our economic Assessment".


- "But it is Not a Policy target. That is to be kept in mind". Moreover, the "international Consensus is in the (latest) G20 statement, and we stick by that. The G20 said: “ We reiterate our Commitments to move more rapidly toward more Market-determined exchange rates systems, and exchange rate flexibility to Reflect underlying Fundamentals, Avoid persistent exchange rate Misalignments and Refrain from competitive Devaluation of currencies.” That is a solemn commitment that the G20 entered into . “We reiterate that access volatility of financial flows and Disorderly movements in Exchange Rates have Adverse implications for economic and financial Stability", he warned. Therefore, "so far, both the real and the effective exchange rate of the €uro are at their long-term Average", Draghi ensured.
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However, reacting to the fact that "Fragmentation in the Labour markets (inside €uroZone) seems to be getting even more pronounced, especially in Youth Unemployment, which is almost 60% in Spain and 8% in Germany", while even "Overall Unemployment is over 25% in Spain and a little over 5% in Germany", so that a question was raised about "why can’t the ECB maybe think about ways to lower this fragmentation if it gets to such an extreme level?", he replied rather soberly :


    - "Just keep in mind that our (ECB's) Mandate is Not full Employment, unlike the Dual mandate of the (American) Federal Reserve. Our mandate, and our statutory objective, is to maintain Price Stability", Draghi observed, as a matter of principle.


    But, "having said that, unemployment and the level of economic activity are very important factors in our (ECB's) assessment of Price Stability, and we certainly want to look at the unemployment rate, and analyse how much of it is Structural", or "Cyclical", as he added :


    From this point of view, Draghi pointed at the fact that "there are certainly some elements of Structurally high Unemployment in what we see today", citting mainly, to the existence of " Dual labour Markets  in which there are the Young with very Little Protection, and the Old, the others, with a Lot of Protection, so unemployment gets concentrated in the young", "because the greater Flexibility that has been introduced since the beginning of the year 2000, was basically concentrated on the Young part of the population, so when the (Global) Crisis came, they were the first ones to lose their jobs", as well as that "there is very little Mobility in this unemployment", so that "Workers (are) not Moving from the Areas where there is no demand, to areas where the demand for labour is better : These are all Structural factors", as well as "significant levels of output gaps (which) would justify lower levels of inflation than we actually have, (and) again seems to suggest that there are certain Structural components in the unemployment rate", on which, ECB's "Monetary policy, even in general, cannot do much about that", as things stand, even if, "finally, we believe that ensuring Price Stability actually gives you the long-term Foundation for Growth and job creation".
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But, meanwhile, a Decade after the "1st series" of €uro Banknotes were "introduced" and put into Circulation, back since "January 2002", "when the €uro finally became “real” for 300 Million Citizens in the then 12 euro area Countries", "Today, (it's more than) 332 Million People, in 17 Countries (who) use euro banknotes every day", while, "Worldwide, the value of €uro banknotes circulating is roughly the Same as that of US Dollar bills !", ECB's Head stressed, later on, at a subsequent Event for the official launching of a brand New, 2nd Series of €uro BankNotes, where "EuroFora" was invited together with other Journalists who participated at ECB's Press Conference on the opening of the New Year 2013 :


- Indeed, "the €uro is in fact being increasingly used as a Global Currency", Worldwide, "and its Banknotes have been circulating inside and outside Europe with ease", proudly observed Draghi, shortly after anouncing ECB's Decision not to lower Interest Rates in €uroZone, but to keep them unchanged.


=> F.ex., " Last month (on December 2012) that value (of €uro Banknoyes circulating Worldwide) was almost 913 Billions euro, with around one-quarter (1/4) of that value circulating Outside the €uroAea, (notably in its Neighbouring regions)", he revealed. Thus, "with 15.7 Billion of them in circulation, €uro Banknotes are a Success story", ECB's Head praised.


Today, since "besides our (ECB's) core function and mandate, to guarantee price stability in the €uro area as a whole, one of our Tasks is to develop what we could call “ our Product”, the €uro banknotes", as Draghi observed, we launch a "New Series of Banknotes", by  adding, for the 1st time, in "the New Series of (2013+) Banknotes, "The word ‘€uro’ is now written in the Cyrillic, as well as in the Latin and Greek Alphabets", he anounced, as if Neighbouring Ukraine and Russia's thriving Economy, etc., were eyed in order to use more and more €uro Currency....


The brand New Series of €uro Banknotes, which started Today in Frankfurt with the official ceremony where ECB's Head signed the 1st Banknote of 5 €uros, i.e. with the largest circulation, due to start to be used from the 2 of May 2013, " will be “Smarter” and even more Secure than the current series", dated from 2002, that it will gradually replace, Draghi anounced.

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Since "over the years, €uro banknotes have become the most Visible Symbol of European Integration", "the Single Currency, the €uro", having been "conceived as a Key Step towards that Goal", as he observed, "the New Series of Banknotes will continue to reflect the Unity and diversity of our Continent", (painted Bordered by Stars, now including also Malta, Cyprus and Iceland, but surrounded by Arab Countries towards Northern Africa, and Turkey, towards Asia Minor, in different colours).

ecb_new_europa_banknotes_rather_ok_map_retouche_peut_tre_400


- In this context, "it is quite appropriate for Europa, a Figure from Greek Mythology, ("from where comes also the Name of our "European" Continent", as it was reminded in Frankfurt's 2013 ceremony), to be on show here and for us to unveil the new Banknote that includes her Portrait", also as a Security Mark in all the "New "Europa" Series Banknotes", ECB's President officially anounced, before visiting an Exhibition with the Ancient Greek Vase from the World-Famous Paris Museum of Louvre, whose paintings inspired the Modern Design of a Lady's Head which will, from now on, be inscribed in all New €uro Banknotes, starting now with that of "5 euro", which "will be the 1st  banknote of the 2nd series of euro banknotes, the so-called “Europa” series".

But this new "Symbol of EU Integration" seems to be, in fact, much more than just a badly needed Modern "Security" feature due to progressively appear in all New €uro Banknotes :

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- Indeed, "the Choice made, among various other representations of "Europe"'s relation with the God "Zeus" who transformed himself into a Flying Bull with Wings, in order to take her in his back and fly from the Mediterranean Sea towards the European Mountains, according to the well known Ancient Greek Mythology, prefered finaly the image painted in this particular vase, simply because, contrary to many others, this painting didn't show any Violence at all, but, on the contrary, Lady Europe's "Soft Power" capacity to Charm Zeus/Bull, i.e. symbolizing also EU's and €uroCurrency's "Attractive" value, revealed to "EuroFora" the competent Curator of Louvre Museum's Greek Ceramics, Dr. Anne Coulié.


+ Moreover, timely adding to the Symbolic value of the New €uroBanknote, the ECB-selected Ancient Greek Painting of "Europa" dates from the 4rth Century B.C., "at the period of King Philip", i.e. the Father of "Alexander the Great", famous for having explored a huge area and considerably expanded his Kingdom, according to his Dream to Unite Together all Civilisations known at that period of Ancient History, Louvre's key official reminded to "EuroFora"....


- This was the  result of a rigorously examined, Collective ECB choice, which is a perfect symbol of Europe added earlier to "EuroFora" Jean-Michel Dumas, Head of ECB's Currency Development service.

ecb_uro_banknotes_2_series_400


=> Indeed, a crystal-clear Ambition to expand the "New face of the €uro", as was named the interesting Exhibition focusing mainly on the Ancient Greek Vase's painting of Lady "Europe", and its Modern Design by German Artist Gastteter at a filigram in ECB's Banknotes, was visible also at Frankfurt's Archeological Museum's Director, Egon Wamers' inaugural observations :


- In fact, Ancient Greek Mythology's figure of Lady "Europe", which named our Continent, has been already used in the ... Deutschmarks printed as early as since 1947 in Germany, Dr. Wamer reminded, while, Charlemagne had earlier decided, from 794 AC, to forge and impose one Single Currency throughout all European area located between the Atlantic Ocean and Mittel-Europa, and from the Baltic Sea until Northern Italy, becoming a first New Currency for all Europe of that time, as he said. Even more interesting : Dr. Wamer revealed that Charlemagne's Historic European Single Currency, has inspired also the ... Brittish "Pound", with its specific Numeric system which remains until today in use at the UK !

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=> Conclusion :  - "If you want to save €uro for 400 Years, (i.e. as long as Charlemagne's single Currency survived), then, bring it back into the UK !", Dr Wamer advised President Draghi, half smiling, half seriously....

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However, in order for €uro Currency to really become sufficiently "Attractive", the €uroArea Countries must first boost their Competitiveness, and complete their Fiscal Consolidation as well as the on-going building of their Economic Governance, a sine qua non Condition for their huge Potential to become really effective, ECB's Head, Mario Draghi, also stressed earlier  today in Frankfurt :
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Naturally, Draghi also noted, this same day, that "we have to acknowledge that Significant Progress has been made in all countries in the €uro area :"


At first, " in all (EU) Countries", "all aspects of economic activity have been affected by Reforms of different kinds, whether fiscal or structural", ", whether you look at their fiscal situation, current account balance, competitiveness, unit labour costs or exports", ECB's Head observed.

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Nevertheless, "the point now, is not to be complacent about what has taken place and relax, but rather to keep on, to Persevere, because we ...are (just) Starting to see the benefits", which "do not only come from the OMTs, from ECB's actions", but,  "first and foremost, from the substantial progress that has been made at National level", he pointed out.


+ "But also let’s not forget the significant Progress that the year 2012 has brought in terms of Governance at the level of the €uro Area", Draghi added. Indeed, "we (EuroZone) made Significant Steps towards greater Integration. The beneficial effects that we see today, ...are really the result of all of these factors combined", he found. So, "we speak a lot about contagion when things go poorly, but I believe that there is also contagion, Positive Contagion, when things go Well. And I think this is in play now. There is positive contagion", ECB's Head found from these points of view.
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However, - " as regards the Risks to economic activity, ... they stem essentially from a Lack of Action by the (EuroZone) Governments on the Fiscal side", where, "not only is continuing fiscal Consolidation Essential, but it also needs to be implemented in a Balanced way, through a proper combination of government expenditure reduction, and taxation", Draghi stressed.


=> But, "the second point (which .. is becoming more and more important in reducing Long-term Imbalances in the euro area), is Structural Adjustment. That is Essentially the only thing that matters, with regard to imbalances in the euro area: Structural adjustment, regaining Competitiveness, and creating a situation where you do not have a (one) permanent Creditor, and lots of permanent Debtors", he denounced. "That is where Action is Needed, and will Continue to be needed for the foreseeable future", ECB's Head pointed out.


Because, despite some "Progress" made mainly "on 2012", particularly on Steps to build Economic Governance's institutional tools, and even if several "Markets are Calmer" recently, compared to the Past, in fact, "to be fair, .. the Jury is still Out. It is Too Early to claim Success", Mario Draghi concluded.
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F.ex., concerning "another Mistake at a National central bank last summer", Draghi was questioned whether "is it not time to think about Centralising the valuation of collateral at the ECB, and taking this competence away from the National central banks to some extent?"


- ECB's Head foud that to be "a Good Question", Because "the way collateral is managed and handled", had been "decided at the Beginning of the ECB", But, "right now we have to Strengthen the Governance of this process, and we are doing so. We have to implement all the decisions that have been taken", he advised.


+ "Then we will certainly Reassess the situation after that, and we will see whether the Steps we have taken are really satisfactory, because... we are taking this very Seriously", he warned.
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 (../..)

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People in Europe and the World expect from CoE to make a succes of its "Monitoring" for Human Rights and Democracy, despite difficulties, said Finland's President Tarja Halonen to "EuroFora" at a crucial moment for the mecanism built 15 years ago by the paneuropean organization which celebrates its 60th Anniversary in 2009.

Halonen, known as "Mother" of CoE's "Monitoring" mecanism, a long-time MEP and former Foreign Minister before becoming Finland's President, holds a long experience in the mattter, after also serving twice as CoE and EU Chairwoman in the past. That's why she is well placed to judge how CoE's "monitoring" should deal today with some crucial issues of importance both to CoE and to the EU.

The move came just a Month before a crucial, last visit to Turkey, scheduled for June, by the President of CoE''s "Monitoring" Committee, Ukranian MEP Serge Holovaty, to finalize his Report on Ankara, the CoE Member State with the longest Monitoring procedure. From its results depends its overall credibility.

This is a Test-case, because, in fact, it's in order to avoid Sanctions threatened against Turkey by a CoE's Assembly's April 1995 Resolution for grave Human Rights violations, Democracy gaps, the continuing Military Occupation in Cyprus, the unresolved Kurdish problem, Aegean differend with Greece, etc., that MEPs decided to create, for the 1st time on April 1996, a "Monitoring" proces, allegedly destinated to check, without excluding Countries who did not fulfill all CoE's standards.

In the Past, the obliged withdrawal of Greece's Military regime and of its "Civil" cover-up out of the CoE had helped bring back Democracy in 1974. But, on the contrary, since April 1996, the idea was to "monitor" Human Rights' respect while keeping most concerned Countries inside the CoE. After Turkey's oldest example, this was extended also to several former "Eastern" European Countries, even if CoE's Assembly has imposed to some of them (fex. Ukraine, Russia, etc., after Belarus, Serbia, etc) various "Sanctions", that Ankara always avoided. Curiously more succesful even than .. USA itself, (a CoE "Observer" since 1995), which has been at least threatened with sanctions some years ago..

EU-effects of CoE's Monitoring process became obvious between 2001-2008, since the "closure" of this procedure, when CoE felt that a Country had met most of its Human Rights, Democracy and Rule of Law obligations, (i.e. the "Copenhagen Criteria" for the EU), helped trigger Negotiations with the EU for "Accession" or other closer relations : This occured already before the 2004 and 2007 EU Enlargements to former "Eastern" European Countries, as well as for the commencement of "accession" negotiations with Croatia, and of "open-ended" negotiations with Turkey in 2005.

    But a stricking new development are Holovaty's recent findings that on core Human Rights issues as Torture and Freedom of Expression, Turkey, even "5 Years after" CoE closed its "Monitoring", back in 2004, inciting EU to start accession Negotiations in 2005, still presents grave problems.

    His findings are of crucial importance after a 2008 CoE Resolution called, "if need be", to "seriously consider the possibility of Re-Opening the Monitoring procedure for Turkey" : A move which might affect Ankara's controversial EU bid, since EU Accession Negotiations are based on the Hypothesis that the Candidate fullfils the "Copenhagen Criteria" (See above)..
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    Holovaty expressed his will to check  "Matters still Outstanding" and  those that he "didn't have an opportunity to discuss" at an earlier visit this year, "in order to discuss the more complex issues in greater depth", at his forthcoming New Visit to Ankara, before the December 2009 EU Summit.  This is all based on the 2004 CoE Resolution which stresses that, CoE "will continue.. post-monitoring Dialogue with the Turkish authorities,...in addition to a 12-points list,..and on any Other Matter that might arise in connection with Turkey’s Obligations as a CoE member state".

    CoE's Resolution also asks  from Turkey "to secure the proper Implementation of Judgements, particularly in the Cyprus v. Turkey InterState case", of 2001, which concerns also the plight of many Hundreds of MISSING People. It adds Turkey's obligations to "execute" ECHR's Judgements in the Loizidou case,..and in particular adopt General Measures to avoid repetition or continuation of Violations found by the Court" to the detriment of Refugees.

    Nevertheless, Holovaty said to "EuroFora" that "MISSING" persons,"might be included" and cannot be excluded, but he has yet to examine the situation "to find out  which issues will be raised" to the Turkish Government.

    Therefore, "EuroFora" asked Halonen, as the Historic "Mother" of CoE's Monitoring mecanism, if she thought that, "whenever there are grave Human Rights Violations, as fex. "MISSING" persons, attested even by ECHR's judgements, they should be always checked by a Monitoring process. Or could they be forgotten ?"
    
     - "We (CoE) must be, at the same time, Fair, Realistic, but not in the mind that "now we have Forgotten", etc., replied to "EuroFora"'s question Halonen, speaking as a matter of general principle.

    - "When we think of those People that are suffering from the lack of Democracy, of Human Rights, and of the Rule of Law", "we should find a base on how to deal with the (Monitoring) system more rapidly"', she stressed.

    - "Sometimes it's very difficult to combine Transparency and Effectivenes together, particularly in this specific case", she went on to say. But, "I have not found a (CoE Member) Country who could be insensitive in this sens", Halonen answered concerning grave Human Rights violations attested by the ECHR.

    - "I have no ready-made answer. I have the expectations that you, in the CoE, will, step by step, find the different types of the monitoring systems."

    Also "because this is a part of the UN's Post-Conflict system, (fex. when it comes to Cyprus' MISSING persons), and it's a more Global system". So that, "If we make a succes in Europe, the others will follow", throughout the World.  "But they expect that we (Europe) are this opportunity, this Opportunity to make a Succes", Halonen concluded.

    In addition, she advised to extend CoE's Monitoring to all its 47 Member States, "because, as long as we hear that, all these monitoring systems are "OK for the neighbor, but not for me", "it's very difficult" to understand. Something which could make easier to Compare...

    Finnish MEP Jaako Laakso, former CoE Rapporteur on the Occupied Territories of Cyprus and one of the 5 Signatories of the Historic CoE's call to create the "MONITORING" mecanism since 1996, was more specific :  - "We (CoE Assembly) have to find a way for the issue of Cyprus' MISSING People to be better followed", he stressed, anouncing his intention to "speak to Mr. Holovaty" about that. "There might be also other ways", added Laakso.

    - The 2008 "Year had been a very Bad one for Turkey with regard to Human Rights in general, and Freedom of Expression in particular", denounced, meanwhile, Holovaty's preliminary Post-Monitoringh Draft Report by Holovaty, published by the CoE on April 2009.

    "Amnesty International believes that freedom of expression is not guaranteed given the various articles of the Criminal Code that restrict it. .. "For example, 1,300 Websites are said to have been closed down by the (Turkish) authorities in 2008" ! While "the new Turkish Criminal Code was used to bring a total of 1,072 proceedings between June 2005 and April 2008, and led to the conviction of 192 people", for expressing views. "Representatives of the Özgür Gündem newspaper, which specialises in Kurdish affairs, ..complained about Numerous Attacks on their Freedom of Expression ...as was everyone who advocated a settlement to the question by means other than the intervention of the army" "According to their figures, 19 Newspapers had been suspended 43 times between 4 August 2006 and 4 November 2008" !...

    Moreover, on 2008,  CoE's "Ministers adopted its 4rth Resolution on the execution of the judgments of the ECHR, ...and outstanding issues regarding 175 Judgements and decisions relating to Turkey delivered between 1996 and 2008...  concerning Deaths resulting from the excessive use of force by members of the Security forces, the failure to protect the right to life, the DIisappearance and/or death of individuals, Ill-Treatment and the Destruction of property". CoE's " Ministers urged the Turkish authorities ...to ensure that members of Security forces of all ranks can be prosecuted without administrative
authorisation" for "serious crimes". Holovaty reminded.

"Nonetheless", Holovaty heard anew of "Several cases of Violence committed last year (2008) by the (Turkish) security forces". Amnesty International speaks of Many Cases of ill-treatment and Torture in the prisons and by the police". "Including, fex."'the death of Engin Ceber, a young man of 29 who died on October 2008 as a result of the TORTURE allegedly inflicted on him by police officers, prison staff and members of the gendarmerie. He was part of a group of people arrested on September 2008 during a demonstration and Press Conference in Istanbul'. Proceedings against suspects are "on-going" in this case.

- " I therefore noted an Obvious Contradiction between the Government’s stated “zero tolerance” policy.... of Torture and other forms of ill-treatment, and the different testimonies given", denounced CoE's Rapporteur.  Turkish "authorities must make considerable efforts to guarantee that proper investigations are carried out into allegations of abuses by members of the security forces and that perpetrators are effectively punished" "In this respect, I have requested detailed Statistics on the number of Investigations, acquittals and convictions in cases involving allegations of abuse in order to show the positive impact of the measures taken to date", Holovaty said, repeating a permanently unsatisfied CoE's demand to Turkey since a Decade...

    - "The Political Crisis that shook the country in the spring of 2008 highlighted the Weaknesses of the (Turkish) Constitution", which comes from the Military regime of 1982, "and the Urgent Need of Reforms", stressed from the outset CoE's Rapporteur in 2009. In particular, "the ...Democratic functioning of state institutions, including the independence of the judicial system, are crucial", he observes.

    But, "the Electoral  system and the ways in which it is circumvented do not appear to give those elected complete Legitimacy, and tend to pervert the course of direct universal suffrage", denounces Holovaty, observing that, even 5 Years later, Turkey did not yet change the 10% nationwide Threshold for a party to take any seat, which is "far higher" than the "3%" maximum in Europe and already condemned as contrary to European Standards by the CoE.

    + Moreover, EU Parliament's 2009 Report on Turkey, drafted by Dutch MEP Ria Oomen-Ruijten and adopted in Strasbourg on March, expresses "Concern over the Failure of the (Turkish) Judiciary to prosecute cases of Torture and Ill-treatment, the Number of which is Growing". EU also "is concerned about continuing Hostility and Violence against Minorities" in Turkey. It also "calls on the Turkish Government to launch, as a matter of Priority, a Political Initiatve favouring a lasting Settlement of the Kurdish issue, (while "condemning violence.. and terrorist groups"). EU "regrets that No progress has been made on establishing full, systematic Civilian suprevisory functions over the (Turkish) Military".

    The final results of Holovaty's 2nd and last visit to Turkley will be known later this year, and, at any case, before EU's December 2009 Summit.

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