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Accueil arrow newsitems arrow China applies CoE BioEthics Treaty Condemning Heritable Gene Editing, but Global Ban is still wanted

China applies CoE BioEthics Treaty Condemning Heritable Gene Editing, but Global Ban is still wanted

Ecrit par ACM
Monday, 30 December 2019
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*Strasbourg/Angelo Marcopolo/-
In a move looking as a Christmas/New Year's Eve Gift to Humanity, China practicaly applied these days CoE BioEthics Convention which Outlaws Heritable Gene Editing. It certainly isn't just because CoE's 850 Millions-strong and China's 1,3 Billion-strong entities have just celebrated Both their 70th Anniversary, reaching the Same Respectable Age since their Birth (1949-2019)... But rather because such Crucial Issues have become Urgently Global. However, the current Lack of a crystal clear Global Ban is still Dangerously looming around...

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Back on November 2018, the Announcement -made at a Hong Kong International Conference, by a Dr. of Chinese origin, but Educated, Funded, and still Networked through, and Cooperating with some USA's "Socialist"/Liberal Technocrats from the period of former US President Barack Hussein Obama, himself abudantly Funded by -and fanatic Fan of - "Big Pharma" Bio-Tech. Lobby, (See Facts at :  http://www.eurofora.net/newsflashes/news/heritablegenemaniptrumpxihumanity.html , etc) - that 2 Babies had been just Born with Genetic Manipulations Transmissible to Future Generations, by the "CRISPR/Cas9" Editing Technology, had stunned the World.   

If the Usual Vows to "Cure Cancer", and/or various "Rare" Genetic Affections, often added to some Other Health Problems, routinely repeated by Backers of Genetic Manipulations' BioTech Lobby, Nowadays might leave many People Indifferent, or at least Sceptical, after so many Hopes Betrayed by Failed Plans, already since Nixon from 1971 against Cancer, and particularly Following Obama's 2009+ Decade of Human Embryos' Genetic Manipulations, etc, withOut Any Tangible Result, Neither Medical Beakthrough, but, on the Contrary, even an Augmentation of the overall Number of Cancer illness Worldwide, Nevertheless, Critical QuestionMarks, UnCertainties, very Probable Risks, or even Obvious Dangers, able to Affect very Big Issues for all Humankind's foreseable Future, suddenly, started to comme, inevitably at the Forefront :

F.ex., inter alia, possible Errors irreversibly DeStabilizing the overall Human Genome, Fabrication of "Dr. Frankenstein"-type "Monsters", or Man - Animal "Chimeras", Invention of various New Type "Alien" Species or Mutants, "Enhanced" Men aside Diminished Beings, Emergence of real New "Races" Developing Separately in an "ppart-Heid" way, which could Obviously Threaten to provoke the End of Humankind in a foreseable Future, (as several Philosphers, Writers, etc, have Warned, already, even since the Beginnning of the 20th Century), etc, are inevitably among the Many "Hot" Questions withOut Ready yet Answers, in this New Area...    

=> That's why, already, CoE's landmark "Oviedo" Convention, on Human Dignity and Human Rights in Biology and Medicine, -alias CoE's "BioEthical" Treaty- had OutLawed any Intervention made with the purpose to Modify the Human Germ-Line Affecting many Generations, Since 1998, (at the Same Moment that Human Persons' "Cloning" had been Banned), by Strasbourg's PanEuropean Organisation, just After an Important CoE Summit of Heads of State/Government, here, on 1997.      

So that, when, on 2018, Dr. Jiankui's radical Genetic Manipulation (reportedly, Later nick-named "Dr. Frankenstein" by many critical Chinese People, at the Internet...), was Clearly Denounced as Both "UnEthical" and "illegal", by an Official Representative of the Chinese Government, several People's Legitimate Concerns were, momentarily, Alleviated, at First Sight, - before becoming, soon afterwardsé, Aware that, in fact, such a Critical Public Statement had been made only by an obscure Vice-Secretary of State for Trade...

=> Thus, it was, naturally, Ensuring to See, Now, this December 2019, that, at least, a Chinese Court has just Judged this case and Found Jiankui and 2 of his Accomplices Guilty, Condemning him to 3 Years in Prison, and a Fine of 3 Millions (Yuan = USDollars 430.OOO), the 2 Accomplices getting 18 Months in Prison, and 2 Years Jail sentence Suspended, added to Fines, for illegal practice of medicine. Jiankui was Earlier "Fired" by the Southern University where he had been working as a Researcher, and, meanwhile, he had been assigned to residence.

Prosecutors found that the 3 were "Not Qualified to Work as Medical Doctors", and had "knowingly Violated Regulations and Ethical Principles" of the Country, by Gene Editing in Reproductive Medicine, having also "Forged a Certificate of (Fake) Ethical Review".

For their Tests, Not Only 2 (as initialy announced) but 3 Genetically Modified Babies had been Born, in not only 1 but 2 Pregnacies, after having Recruited not 1 but ... EIght (8) Couples, presented as "Volunteers", "Implanting Genetically-Engineered Embryos into the Womens"' womb, and impegnating 2 of them, who have Birth to the 3 Babies.

In order to Hide his activities, Jiankui had taken an UnPaid Leave from the Chinese University, conducted his Research Outside of the Campus, Received only Private Funding, (probably largely from Abroad), included in his Team also "Overseas" Members, and was Assisted by a North American Doctor from the USA, member of the above-mentioned Lobbies, (Comp. Supra).

The 3 Culprits acted "in the pursuit of Personal Fame and Gain", having also Seriously "Disrupted Medical Order", found the Court, after they Pleaded Guilty. An Earlier Report by the Health Commissio of China denounced also the fact that Jankui had "Defied Government Bans", and  had been "Deliberately Evading OverSIght" of "the illegal project".

The Fact that for such kind of Technocrats the so-called "Health" Target often is Only a Hollow Pretext, (the Real Aim being to Take Control of Tools allowing to exert Influence upon Human Beings), became Recently Obvious in the Parallel case of Russian Molecular Biologist Denis Rebrikov, who had reportedly Announced Plans to Implant Gene-Edited Embryos into Women, and aimed to use CRISP to Target the Gene CCR5 to act against HIV virus, like his Chinese Competitor : Later, when he learned what happened in the case of Jiankui, he Changed course and Focused, instead, to Gene GJB2, linked to  ...Hearing Loss !

+ But, Meawhile, it was Revealed that, in fact, Jiankui had even Failed to fully reach his Target : Indeed, on HIV virus, the Results were "Similar", but NOt "Identical", to what had been expected, leaving Room for various Other Interpretations.  Moreover, it seems that the Operation had Also provoked some Other Alterations in the DNA, whose Consequences were Not yet known, as it was Recently revealed by the Publicaton, at an MIT Researcher's Blog,  of Jiankui's own personal Notes... As such Problems had been already Found Also at Various Other cases of Gene Editing, Criticism naturally Grew further.

- What was done in this case, "was Extremely Irresponsible", Denounced, f.ex., Today, Zhou Canquan, from the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University in China, according to State-backed "Xinua" News Agency.

- (A) From 1 Side, Heritable Gene Editing interventions are still Accused for "Ignorance of Health Risks", according to Zhou.

+ (B) But from anOther (more Fundamental) Side, it is Also Denounced for Tresspassing even the "consensus in the medical community to conduct research with Moral Principles", he added.

=> In Both cases, "What they (Dr. Jieankui's Team) did constitutes serious Violations of the country's Laws and Regulations," said Professor Chen Xingliang of Law School with Peking University, according to "Xinhua".

- "Health Risks regarding Gene-Editing are yet to be Evaluated", Critically Observed  Zhou Qi, an academician with the Chinese Academy of Sciences, (ibid), concerning the 1st Point.

+ And "Technological, Societal and Moral aspects should be taken into consideration", he Added, on the 2nd, and most Fundamental, point.

>>> Given also the Fact that, "If the Edited Genes go into the Human Gene Pool, the Impact will be Irreversible," (for Generations), the Chinese Academician Warned.

=> That's why "We Hope that every Doctor can Stick to Moral Principles, and Respect Laws and Regulations," stressed Qiao Jie, with the Chinese Academy of Engineering, also referring to the 2nd, most Crucial point.

+ Moreover, concerning this same point which affects all Humankind, Academician Zhou Qi, "suggested Improving the country's Laws and regulations, and (even) Enhancing Punishment for Violations", given the particular importance of that matter for all Humankind.

Interestingly, this call Concludes the Observations published by State-Backed "Xinhua" News Agency in China, Today.      

--------------------------------------------      

 - On the Contrary, anOther Group, (mainly from a Part of USA's "Socialist"/Liberal pro-BioTech Lobbies, dating particularly from Obama's era : Comp. Supra), pushes Only for a Time-Limited Postponment of Heritable Gene Editing, f.ex. during just the next "5 Years" or so, (f.ex. USA's "National Institutes of Health" Chief, Francis Collins, a Genetician, Head of the "Human Genome" project, naturaly Appointed by Barack Hussein Obama !), some evoking even "as Soon as possible", for "Guidelines on Research and Applications", (as, f.ex., China's Academy of Medical Science" : Not to Confuse with - but to Distinguish from - China's "Academy of Science" in general, which Includes Also Law, Philosophy, History, Sociology, Morals and Ethics, etc, obviously Lacking here)...

=> Ad Absurdum, such a thing could be Practically equivalent into merely ...Waiting for ... Dr. JianKui to get Out of Prison, in 3 Years, i.e. just on Time in order to Prepare himself for another round of Heritable Gene Editing, that time under the auspices of Mr. Barack Hussein Obama's and other unscrupulous Bio-Tech Lobbies' pals...     


Meanwhile, their pathway would be paved and timely prepared by "Tests" on Mamal Animals, the Nearest possible to the Human Race, particularly Monkeys, as those Baby Macaque, who were, at first, Inoculated by a Gene provoking an Atrocious Brain Damage, afterwards Cloned (with the Same Procedures as the in the notorious World-Banned and Failed case of "Dolly the Sheep"), and led (through Heritable Gene-Editing") to Artificial Births of Sick (rather Poisoned) Babies to "Study" by a Shanghai-based "Chinese" Labo, by a "Coincidence" just Shortly After Dr. Jankui's experiments on Human Babies were Condemned, i.e. around the Beginning of 2019... (By the way, such and various other Atrocious Genetic "Tests" on Mamal Animals, Recently Multiplied, seem to be a Leading Cause for Many People's sudden U-turn towards several ...Political Parties for the Protection of Animals, curiously Winning Unusually Many Votes in Recent Elections throughout manifold Countries, in Europe and elsewhere in the World).

Obviously, such Restrictive, Short-Term, Micro-"Bans", merely Postponing for a while the Heritable Gene Editing interventions on Humans, might, Perhaps, Fit to some Attempts to Overcome Only the 1st (and Comparatively less Dangerous) Problem : I.e. that of Facing various probable Health Risks that might be Provoked by some UnControlled or UnExplored yet Gene Modifications almost automatically triggered during such an intrusion inside the Human Genome (Comp. Supra).    

>>> But, naturally, this has Nothing to do with the 2nd, and much More Important Problem concerning Heritable Gene Editing, which Affects also Crucial Social and/or Ethical Key aspects of Humankind's present and foreseable Future, (Comp. also Supra), which does Not depend on Small Time Deadlines, but on core Content and main Substance !

=> And This is, precisely, what Motivates, Recently, a Lot of "Viral" Public Debates, particularly at the World Wide Web, Sparked by such Topical Controversies over possible Risks of Abuse via Genetic Manipulations, as many Medias have Noticed and pointed out :

- F.ex., among others, also China's "Global Times" Medias have Often written, Recently, about concrete cases where "Most of the Netizens have Expressed their Worry" over the "Harms" that Genetic Modifications "may cause to Humans", holding the "Belief that Genetic Engineering is Against the Laws of Nature", and/or could provoke "Horrible" Consequences,  Opposed to "a Comparatively Smaller Group of Supporters ..(of)... Genetic Modifications", as they found. Or that "Many" People "are Concerned that the (Genetic) Technology May bring lots of Social Disturbances in the Future", while Only a Minority of "Others" claim to merely "Appreciate" its alleged "Benefits", (etc)...

+ Moreover, at an Important Recent CoE's Conference on BioEthics in Strasbourg, the President of France's National Ethics Committee, Professor Jean-Francois Delfraissy, Denounced the existence of several "Too Important GAPs" between the People and Public Authorities, in Some Controversial Issues where "there is a Problem", "to be Decided at the Highest Levels of the State", After a Public Consultation at the Internet which Revealed that phenomenon (Obvious even in relevant Graphics on its Conclusions), Focused, precisely, around Artificial Medical Interventions on Human Births, (f.ex. in order to Artificially Provoke a Birth ordered by a Couple of Lesbians, etc), as he Later Told to "Eurofora", ( See: http://www.eurofora.net/newsflashes/news/coebioethicsdebatechildrenforlesbiansandheritablegenemanip.html, etc). Interestingly, that Public Consultation had taken place juste a few Months Before the November 2018 Scandal on the 1st Heritable Gene Editing by US-linked Dr. Jiankui, (See: http://www.eurofora.net/newsflashes/news/heritablegenemaniptrumpxihumanity.html), so that the Consulted People who would be Now Against any Artificial Medical Interventions on Human Births which Might, Eventually, Abuse of such Methods, should, normally, have become Even More Numerous !)...

=> So that, from the point of view of Society and Humanity's foreseable Future (Comp. Supra), Obviously, the main Question is Not about some Short Time Deadlines, merely Postponing the Controversial Heritable Gene Editing, until its Technology might be somehow finetuned, as Some Claim, (Comp. Supra), But, on the Contrary, about how to Prevent it Urgently, and Find Substantial Solutions to the Main, Core-Issues that it raises for Humankind.

- In this regard, WHO's Recent 2019 Call to "Halt all work on Genome Editing",  while, at the Same Time, it Launched a "Global Registry" to Track any Research on that area, Worldwide, seems well to be a Practicaly Useful 1st Step in the Good Direction.     

+ Subsequent 2019 Calls by Top MEPs in EU Parliament in Strasbourg to establish a "Global Ban" against Heritable Gene Editing, (See, f.ex. : ..., etc), Similar to CoE's previous Global Ban call against Human "Clonning" since 1998, Open to Signature by Any Country in the World, (mutatis-mutandis, Also as UNO's Declaration against Clonning, adopted at New York on 2005), are Naturally the Next Step to take asap, on this level, in one way or another.     

++ But, Meanwhile, (and, at Any Case, even Later-on), several More Concrete Measures have Now Become Necessary in Real Practice. F.ex., Urgently Needed Scientific Research and Technological Development also on :

- How to Spot Timely any eventual Heritable Gene Editing eventually committed on a Human Embryon which has Faced any kind of Artificial Medical Intervention (f.ex. so-called "Fertility" Treatment, IVF, etc), that could, Perhaps, have Affected its Genome.

Nobody can Forget, indeed, the Fact that even Dr. Jiankui acted in Secret, Hidden from any Oversight, (Comp. Supra).

And, Unfortunately, Recent Controversial Attempts by some Lobbies to Push, (Curiously at the Same Time !), for various UnPrecedented and UnPopular Medical Interventions on Artificial Births, f.ex. concerning Homosexuals (Lesbian couples, "Surrogate Mothers" for Gay couples, etc), Risk Obviously to Multiply the Number of Cases Risking, Nowadays, for several People to Fall Victims of some Shady Technocrats' possible Abuse.

- How to, eventually, at least Stop a Transmission to Future Generations, of a Heritable Gene Editing Spoted Nowadays, Before it Spreads Widely.

- How to, eventually, Reverse a Heritable Gene Editing, if it is Spoted on Time, (f.ex. Before a 1st Birth).

ETC.+...

These are Some among the Technological Inventions that Conscious and Well-Intentioned Scientists, Defending Humanity, would have to Realize, sooner or later, in the foreseable Future, and/or all Humans themselves, at any case, would have to Strive to Solve, if needed, by their own Means, in one way or another, if they doN't want to practically Disappear from Earth's History in the Future as a Species (Comp. Supra)...

----------

+ Meanwhile, Now that China's State took some Concrete Measures, between Christmas and New Eve, to Defend the UNBORN Child, (an Issue sharply Facing All Humanity, Nowadays, and Not Only Christians, as such), USA's new President Don Trump should, at last, Advance towards a Positive TRADE Deal with Chinese President Xi Jiping asap., for the basic Peaceful Benefit of Both People.

Let some "Socialists"/Liberals and/or other Lobbies of Abusive Technocrats, on Both Sides, attempt to play the "Trouble-Makers", Alone...

 

(../..)

 

("Draft-News")

 

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People in Europe and the World expect from CoE to make a succes of its "Monitoring" for Human Rights and Democracy, despite difficulties, said Finland's President Tarja Halonen to "EuroFora" at a crucial moment for the mecanism built 15 years ago by the paneuropean organization which celebrates its 60th Anniversary in 2009.

Halonen, known as "Mother" of CoE's "Monitoring" mecanism, a long-time MEP and former Foreign Minister before becoming Finland's President, holds a long experience in the mattter, after also serving twice as CoE and EU Chairwoman in the past. That's why she is well placed to judge how CoE's "monitoring" should deal today with some crucial issues of importance both to CoE and to the EU.

The move came just a Month before a crucial, last visit to Turkey, scheduled for June, by the President of CoE''s "Monitoring" Committee, Ukranian MEP Serge Holovaty, to finalize his Report on Ankara, the CoE Member State with the longest Monitoring procedure. From its results depends its overall credibility.

This is a Test-case, because, in fact, it's in order to avoid Sanctions threatened against Turkey by a CoE's Assembly's April 1995 Resolution for grave Human Rights violations, Democracy gaps, the continuing Military Occupation in Cyprus, the unresolved Kurdish problem, Aegean differend with Greece, etc., that MEPs decided to create, for the 1st time on April 1996, a "Monitoring" proces, allegedly destinated to check, without excluding Countries who did not fulfill all CoE's standards.

In the Past, the obliged withdrawal of Greece's Military regime and of its "Civil" cover-up out of the CoE had helped bring back Democracy in 1974. But, on the contrary, since April 1996, the idea was to "monitor" Human Rights' respect while keeping most concerned Countries inside the CoE. After Turkey's oldest example, this was extended also to several former "Eastern" European Countries, even if CoE's Assembly has imposed to some of them (fex. Ukraine, Russia, etc., after Belarus, Serbia, etc) various "Sanctions", that Ankara always avoided. Curiously more succesful even than .. USA itself, (a CoE "Observer" since 1995), which has been at least threatened with sanctions some years ago..

EU-effects of CoE's Monitoring process became obvious between 2001-2008, since the "closure" of this procedure, when CoE felt that a Country had met most of its Human Rights, Democracy and Rule of Law obligations, (i.e. the "Copenhagen Criteria" for the EU), helped trigger Negotiations with the EU for "Accession" or other closer relations : This occured already before the 2004 and 2007 EU Enlargements to former "Eastern" European Countries, as well as for the commencement of "accession" negotiations with Croatia, and of "open-ended" negotiations with Turkey in 2005.

    But a stricking new development are Holovaty's recent findings that on core Human Rights issues as Torture and Freedom of Expression, Turkey, even "5 Years after" CoE closed its "Monitoring", back in 2004, inciting EU to start accession Negotiations in 2005, still presents grave problems.

    His findings are of crucial importance after a 2008 CoE Resolution called, "if need be", to "seriously consider the possibility of Re-Opening the Monitoring procedure for Turkey" : A move which might affect Ankara's controversial EU bid, since EU Accession Negotiations are based on the Hypothesis that the Candidate fullfils the "Copenhagen Criteria" (See above)..
-------------------------
    Holovaty expressed his will to check  "Matters still Outstanding" and  those that he "didn't have an opportunity to discuss" at an earlier visit this year, "in order to discuss the more complex issues in greater depth", at his forthcoming New Visit to Ankara, before the December 2009 EU Summit.  This is all based on the 2004 CoE Resolution which stresses that, CoE "will continue.. post-monitoring Dialogue with the Turkish authorities,...in addition to a 12-points list,..and on any Other Matter that might arise in connection with Turkey’s Obligations as a CoE member state".

    CoE's Resolution also asks  from Turkey "to secure the proper Implementation of Judgements, particularly in the Cyprus v. Turkey InterState case", of 2001, which concerns also the plight of many Hundreds of MISSING People. It adds Turkey's obligations to "execute" ECHR's Judgements in the Loizidou case,..and in particular adopt General Measures to avoid repetition or continuation of Violations found by the Court" to the detriment of Refugees.

    Nevertheless, Holovaty said to "EuroFora" that "MISSING" persons,"might be included" and cannot be excluded, but he has yet to examine the situation "to find out  which issues will be raised" to the Turkish Government.

    Therefore, "EuroFora" asked Halonen, as the Historic "Mother" of CoE's Monitoring mecanism, if she thought that, "whenever there are grave Human Rights Violations, as fex. "MISSING" persons, attested even by ECHR's judgements, they should be always checked by a Monitoring process. Or could they be forgotten ?"
    
     - "We (CoE) must be, at the same time, Fair, Realistic, but not in the mind that "now we have Forgotten", etc., replied to "EuroFora"'s question Halonen, speaking as a matter of general principle.

    - "When we think of those People that are suffering from the lack of Democracy, of Human Rights, and of the Rule of Law", "we should find a base on how to deal with the (Monitoring) system more rapidly"', she stressed.

    - "Sometimes it's very difficult to combine Transparency and Effectivenes together, particularly in this specific case", she went on to say. But, "I have not found a (CoE Member) Country who could be insensitive in this sens", Halonen answered concerning grave Human Rights violations attested by the ECHR.

    - "I have no ready-made answer. I have the expectations that you, in the CoE, will, step by step, find the different types of the monitoring systems."

    Also "because this is a part of the UN's Post-Conflict system, (fex. when it comes to Cyprus' MISSING persons), and it's a more Global system". So that, "If we make a succes in Europe, the others will follow", throughout the World.  "But they expect that we (Europe) are this opportunity, this Opportunity to make a Succes", Halonen concluded.

    In addition, she advised to extend CoE's Monitoring to all its 47 Member States, "because, as long as we hear that, all these monitoring systems are "OK for the neighbor, but not for me", "it's very difficult" to understand. Something which could make easier to Compare...

    Finnish MEP Jaako Laakso, former CoE Rapporteur on the Occupied Territories of Cyprus and one of the 5 Signatories of the Historic CoE's call to create the "MONITORING" mecanism since 1996, was more specific :  - "We (CoE Assembly) have to find a way for the issue of Cyprus' MISSING People to be better followed", he stressed, anouncing his intention to "speak to Mr. Holovaty" about that. "There might be also other ways", added Laakso.

    - The 2008 "Year had been a very Bad one for Turkey with regard to Human Rights in general, and Freedom of Expression in particular", denounced, meanwhile, Holovaty's preliminary Post-Monitoringh Draft Report by Holovaty, published by the CoE on April 2009.

    "Amnesty International believes that freedom of expression is not guaranteed given the various articles of the Criminal Code that restrict it. .. "For example, 1,300 Websites are said to have been closed down by the (Turkish) authorities in 2008" ! While "the new Turkish Criminal Code was used to bring a total of 1,072 proceedings between June 2005 and April 2008, and led to the conviction of 192 people", for expressing views. "Representatives of the Özgür Gündem newspaper, which specialises in Kurdish affairs, ..complained about Numerous Attacks on their Freedom of Expression ...as was everyone who advocated a settlement to the question by means other than the intervention of the army" "According to their figures, 19 Newspapers had been suspended 43 times between 4 August 2006 and 4 November 2008" !...

    Moreover, on 2008,  CoE's "Ministers adopted its 4rth Resolution on the execution of the judgments of the ECHR, ...and outstanding issues regarding 175 Judgements and decisions relating to Turkey delivered between 1996 and 2008...  concerning Deaths resulting from the excessive use of force by members of the Security forces, the failure to protect the right to life, the DIisappearance and/or death of individuals, Ill-Treatment and the Destruction of property". CoE's " Ministers urged the Turkish authorities ...to ensure that members of Security forces of all ranks can be prosecuted without administrative
authorisation" for "serious crimes". Holovaty reminded.

"Nonetheless", Holovaty heard anew of "Several cases of Violence committed last year (2008) by the (Turkish) security forces". Amnesty International speaks of Many Cases of ill-treatment and Torture in the prisons and by the police". "Including, fex."'the death of Engin Ceber, a young man of 29 who died on October 2008 as a result of the TORTURE allegedly inflicted on him by police officers, prison staff and members of the gendarmerie. He was part of a group of people arrested on September 2008 during a demonstration and Press Conference in Istanbul'. Proceedings against suspects are "on-going" in this case.

- " I therefore noted an Obvious Contradiction between the Government’s stated “zero tolerance” policy.... of Torture and other forms of ill-treatment, and the different testimonies given", denounced CoE's Rapporteur.  Turkish "authorities must make considerable efforts to guarantee that proper investigations are carried out into allegations of abuses by members of the security forces and that perpetrators are effectively punished" "In this respect, I have requested detailed Statistics on the number of Investigations, acquittals and convictions in cases involving allegations of abuse in order to show the positive impact of the measures taken to date", Holovaty said, repeating a permanently unsatisfied CoE's demand to Turkey since a Decade...

    - "The Political Crisis that shook the country in the spring of 2008 highlighted the Weaknesses of the (Turkish) Constitution", which comes from the Military regime of 1982, "and the Urgent Need of Reforms", stressed from the outset CoE's Rapporteur in 2009. In particular, "the ...Democratic functioning of state institutions, including the independence of the judicial system, are crucial", he observes.

    But, "the Electoral  system and the ways in which it is circumvented do not appear to give those elected complete Legitimacy, and tend to pervert the course of direct universal suffrage", denounces Holovaty, observing that, even 5 Years later, Turkey did not yet change the 10% nationwide Threshold for a party to take any seat, which is "far higher" than the "3%" maximum in Europe and already condemned as contrary to European Standards by the CoE.

    + Moreover, EU Parliament's 2009 Report on Turkey, drafted by Dutch MEP Ria Oomen-Ruijten and adopted in Strasbourg on March, expresses "Concern over the Failure of the (Turkish) Judiciary to prosecute cases of Torture and Ill-treatment, the Number of which is Growing". EU also "is concerned about continuing Hostility and Violence against Minorities" in Turkey. It also "calls on the Turkish Government to launch, as a matter of Priority, a Political Initiatve favouring a lasting Settlement of the Kurdish issue, (while "condemning violence.. and terrorist groups"). EU "regrets that No progress has been made on establishing full, systematic Civilian suprevisory functions over the (Turkish) Military".

    The final results of Holovaty's 2nd and last visit to Turkley will be known later this year, and, at any case, before EU's December 2009 Summit.

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