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Home arrow newsitems arrow German People voted : Crystal-clear Absolute Majority to the Right + 56 % !

German People voted : Crystal-clear Absolute Majority to the Right + 56 % !

Written by ACM
Sunday, 24 September 2017
germany_unity_of_the_right_last_version_400 

*Strasbourg/Angelo Marcopolo/- Just after Norway, even stronger in Germany, Democracy spoke this September 2017 : The German People gave a Crystal-clear Absolute Majority to the Right with more than + 56 % of the Votes in the National Election for the New Parliament of 2017-2021.


Indeed, the 3 Parties located at the Right side of the Political spectrum, from the Center-Right "Liberals" (10,5%), the Right of "ChristianDemocrats"/EPP (33%) and the Rightists of the "Alternative" (13,2%), all together succeeded to attract, undeniably, a very Big Absolute Majority for the New Bundestag in Berlin, with Even much More Votes than the equivalent parties in Norway, just a few Days Earlier, (Comp.: ...).

 

In terms of Elected MPs, this gives 420 MPs, i.e. + 65 More than what is required for an Absolute Majority (just 355), which is the Highest Number of MPs from All theoretically possible Coalitions among Various Parties in Germany Today :


F.ex. Socialists again with the ChristianDemocrats would just have +44 MPs margin (i.e. - 21 Less than All the Right) ; while a "Jamaica" color group where ChristianDemocrats and Liberals might go with the "Greens", would have only +38 MPs margin (i.e. - 27 Less than All the Right); and Any Other Combination would Fall into a Minority, Lacking from - 29 MPs Less than necessary in order to Govern (f.ex. CDU + FDP), Down to - 66 MPs Less than what is required, (f.ex. an "All Left" grouping with Socialists, Leftists and Greens, which would be the Weakest).       

                                                                                
In Fact, the "Number 1" Winner, i.e. a new Coalition of All the Right (Comp. Supra), would Also be the most Democratic solution, comparatively, since the "ChristianDemocrats" still remain the 1st Political Party of Germany, while the "Liberals" and the "Alternative" are, Today, the Only 2 Parties who Win Many Votes : + 6% and + 8,5% respectively, (while all the Others either Loose or Stagnate) - among whom, the latter ("AfD" = "Alternative für Deutschland") Wins the Most new votes of the German People.


Such a possible Unity of the Right would even be More "Natural", from the point of view of the People, since Polls reveal that there is a "Continuum", a "Flux" of Voters from the "ChristianDemocrats" towards the "Liberals" and to the "Alternative", Each of whom Receives more than +1 Million Voters from the CDU/CSU this time, (while the "AfD/Alternative" gets also some + 500.000 Votes from the "Socialists" too).


On the Contrary, the German People clearly Refused another "Gro-Ko", since Both the 2 Biggest Parties (CDU + PSD) Lost a lot of Votes now, (and the Socialists appeared Tonight Eager to go to the Opposition, after Risking to Fall even Lower than 20%). As for the Left side of the Political Spectrum, its 3 Parties have Only a net Minority (Comp. Supra).


Chancellor Angie Merkel, as the Leader of what still remains, by far, the 1st (Biggest) Political Party in Germany, CDU/CSU's "ChristianDemocrats", obviously got Today a new clear "Mandate" from the German People to try to form her New Government, according also to Today's Vote Results :


- As she reportedly Resumed the Situation : - It was Hard, but we (CDU/CSU) have got a Mandate. While Nobody could Govern against us, she observed in substance.


-----------------------------------------
Liberals

(+ W. Schäuble's best role)
------------------------------------------------


Concerning the 2nd Best possibility (Comp. Supra) : that of a "Jamaica" Coalition between ChristianDemocrats, Liberals and the Greens, even if Interesting, it seems, Nowadays, to have More Problems than Initially thought in the Past (See Infra) :


- F.ex., the Liberals, inter alia, have also stressed that they absolutely want to have Not the Foreign Ministry, as it was usual in the Past, but the Ministry of Finances, where the Most Popular Politician of Germany, the ChristianDemocrat Wolfgang Schäuble, has notoriously done a Good Job for the German Economy, (for the 1st Time since the 1960ies withOut any Debt !), and in great part also for the rest of the EU.

Many German a.o. Medias speculated, these Days, about what exactly Might be Schäuble's Next Political Task : Hypothesis published Nowadays, oscillated between f.ex., the Foreign Ministry, or the Presidency of the Bundestag (as the Good Norbert Lammert curiously chose retirement), etc.

Inter alia, in particular, Schäuble's recent Call to "Prevent an East - West Division" (See: ..), could, f.ex. be developed both Inside Germany (given Today's Differencies even of Votes, between German Regions),, and in Foreign Policy, (f.ex. with "Visegrad" Countries, as Hungary, Poland, Czechia, etc., particularly on the "Burning" Issue of Mass Migration via Turkey, etc), as well as on relevant EU Policies, (Comp. Infra).


And its true that Schäuble, initially chosen by the Historic former Long-Time German Chancellor Helmut Kohl, as Director of his Office, (i.e. an Overview-providing Top Job), then JHA Minister, Negotiator for the ReUnification of Germany, Head of the Governing CDU/CSU's Parliamentary Group, Top Minister of JHA or Finances, at a Crucial period of €uroArea, and when Many notoriously Expect that it might Advance towards creating the Foundations of a possible EU's more Integrated and Stronger Core, with More Instruments and even a Security/Defense policy, etc., could also Serve in Various Other Top Jobs :
 
-  From a projected Job of EU's "Minister" for €uroArea, to Future EU Parliament's President After the 2019 EU Elections, or even that New Job in a Future "Unified" Presidency of Both EU Commission and Council, (as Juncker recently Proposed, at EU Parliament in Strasbourg, while also Announcing, curiously, that he does Not intend to be Candidate personally), etc., a possible List may be Long...


----------------------------------------------------
"Jamaica" Coalition => + "Greens" ?
---------------------------------------------------------------


+ As for the "Greens", they already Govern, Together with ChristianDemocrats/EPP, at the Level of the neighbouring, Federated "Länder" of Baden-Wurttemberg, as well as, Recently, at Nord-Rhein-Westfalia (NRW : in the middle of 2017), in the past at Hessen, etc, according to an Idea suggested by "Eurofora" from 2010 (See, f.ex.: ...), and apparently Supported, in Theory, also by Pope Emeritus Benedict, particularly with his Landmark Theory on "Human Ecology", that he had Highlighted at the German Bundestag during his 2011 Official Visit, (comp.: ...).

But, this had been initialy Motivated by a Hope to Tackle strong BioEthical Issues, Crucial Today for Humankind's Future, (Comp. Pope Emeritus Benedict's 2009 landmark Encyclic "Caritas in Veritatis" at : ..., and "Eurofora"'s relevant Publications at : .... +...., etc), which have, Recently, been, Unfortunately, Bypassed, for a lage Part : F.ex. by "GroKo" Deals with the Socialists about Genetic Tests on Humans (from 2013), and/or the latest, surprisingly Hasty, 30/6/2017 Imposal of "Same Sex Marriage" between Homosexuals, including even Submission of Children to Homosexual Strangers under Pretext of "Adoption", etc., which provoke Risks for Shady Technocratic a.o. Lobbies to eventualy Take Control over Artificial Techniques for Procreation of Human Beings, Dangerous for all Humankind), etc.

While the Latter, still remains to be Checked by the German Constitutional Court, at nearby Karlsruhe, nevertheless, several Other Topical BioEthical Issues also Remain to be Tackled, such as the Atrocious Exploitation of "Surrogate Mothers", the Risk to Spread "Artificial Procreations of Human Beings", etc., as well as various, gallopîng Techniques of Genetic Manipulations on Animals and/or Foodstuffs, (f.ex. Plants, etc), but also growing Dangers of "TransHumanism", etc., where eventual cooperation might sustain the initial Stake on BioEthics (Comp. Supra).


------------


However, a Different Issue might be the Fact that, according to Polls, a "Jamaica"
Coalition (CDU - FDP - Greens) would Not be yet Popular enough : On the Contrary, a Majority seems to be Against, (particularly among ChristianDemocrats and Greens), leaving Only a Skin-Thin Majority of Liberals to Stand for it...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      


+ And the new President of the North Rhein - Westphalia Länder (NRW), Amin Laschet, reportedly believes "Jamaika" to be a quite "Difficult" matter, particularly because, for him, he Number 1 Issue (especially for his region) would rather be to Boost Industry, (i.e. even there whee the "Greens" might Hesitate or be Opposed).


++ But, More Problematic is the Topical, "Hot" Issue of Mass Migration : The "Liberals" have Recently become Strongly Critical vis a vis the current Problem of  Mass Asylum Seekers/Irregular Migrants, (as that UnPrecedented "Tsunami" which suddenly Infiltrated into the EU through Turkey since 2015-2016). While, on the Contrary, most "Greens" would still keep a "Welcome" stance...


---------------------------------
Unity of All the Right ?
----------------------------------------


 => Paradoxically, such Difficulties with the "Jamaika" Coalition, might "Disappear", or even, be Transformed, on the Contrary, into ... Common Points, when it comes for Migration Issues and the "CDU - FDP - AdF" Formula of Unity of All the Right, where many Liberals, ChristianDemocrats and Alternative might Share Similar Views on that "Hot" and Topical matter, (particularly when it comes into Keeping a "Firm" Stance vis a vis Mass Asylum Seekers/Irregular Migrants influx, as those which, Suddenly, inundated Europe through Turkey from 2015-2016).

Naturally, the Unity of All the Right, with the 3 Parties (ChristianDemocrats, Liberals and Alternative) to which the German People gave the Biggest Number of MPs, taken all Together, has become, Today, the solution for a New Government with the Strongest Absolute Majority, as we saw (Comp. Numbers noted Supra).

But, Notoriously, there are some Other Difficulties, in view for any Negotiations to create a New Governemental Coalition at the Right side of the Political Spectrum for the 1st Time in History.


Perhaps less the Risk for Far Rightist Deviations by some, (in fact, rather Easy to Oppose, if necessary), but More the Insistance of certain sectors (mainy of the SPD) to "Demonise" at any cost the "Alternative", so as to Divide the Right, and let the Left Dominate the Political Life, (as it has been routinely done f.ex. in France, at a quite Different situation, however)...

Nevertheless, just at the Beginning of this Week, (on Sunday, 17 of September 2017), suddenly Chancellor Angie Merkel surprized by an Apparently "Anodynous" Answer to an Exceptional session of Questions/Replies with Young Kids  in Berlin :
 
 - Her Favorite Head of Government would be ..."Erna Solberg of Norway" (sic !), she UnExpectedly revealed, just a Few Days since the Center-Right Leader of the Norwegian Conservatives Won a 2nd Electoral Mandate ...together with a Rightist party !

That Successful Norwegian move towards a Unity of the Right, has Spread, meanwhile, also in Denmark (forthcoming CoE President for November 2017 - May 2018 : Comp. ....).

More Recently, also in Bulgaria, where ChristianDemocrat/EPP party's Boyko Borisov has agreed a Government Deal with the Rightists of the "United Patriots", who "Droped their former Euro-Sceptiscist stance, endorsing now a Pro-European Agenda, since Bulgaria is due to Chair the EU from January 2O18", (as Sofia's Ambassador to the CoE, experienced former EU Affairs Minister Ms Katya Todorova, has told "Eurofora", earlier in Strasbourg)...

And Brussels has just endorsed as New EU Commissioner for "Digital" Technologies, the ...Bulgarian MEP Maria Gabriel, Wife of a French EU Parliament's Officer from Strasbourg, former Assistant to ChristianDemocrat/EPP President Joseph Daul, and currently of New EU Parliament's President Antonio Tajani, well known to "Eurofora" since many years...

The German People gave Today to the Rightists of the "Alternative" new party, about 13%-14% and Many MPs at the Bundestag, for the First Time at National level, Making them the Biggest among the 4 Small Parties, and revendicating the 3rd Rank in the New Parliament, (just after the ChristianDemocrats and the Socialists : Comp. Supra).

Together with the Liberals and the Rightists, the ChristianDemocrats could now have a Very Solid Absolute Majority of More than 56 % of the Votes casted in these 2017 Elections, just with the Right side of the Political spectrum, (i.e. without any more Concessions to the Left, f.ex. to the Socialists or the Greens, etc).

Notoriously, however, there seem to still be several Big Differences between the "CDU/CSU" and the "Alternative" currently, as things stand until now.

However Changes may be Possible, as the Examples of Norway, Denmark, Bulgaria, and elsewhere in Europe, (f.ex. also in Finland, between 2015 - 2017, but even Nowadays, with at least a portion of "the Finns' Party" rightists), precisely shows (Comp. Supra)...
 
Already, f.ex., among others, even AfD's vice-President, MEP Beatrix von Storck, who had been Presented by Establishment's Medias as Radically Opposed to Merkel in the Past, on the Contrary, Recently, she Complained to "Eurofora" in EU Parliament in Strasbourg that CDU People "don't even Talk to us !", ...

I.e., at First Sight, the situation, mutatis-mutandis, looks Similar to that which had Existed in the Past between the ChristianDemocrats and the Greens until 2010 (See, f.ex. : ... + ..., etc), but Changed seriously After 2011 - 2013, so that Today, a, eventual "Jamaica" Coalition (CDU/CSU - Liberals - Greens) notoriously seems possible.

And Chancellor Angie Merkel has already proved that she's perfectly Able, when really needed, to make even some Spectacular "U-Turns", on Strategic Issues, (as, f.ex., her 2011 "Energy-Schift", on the occasion of Fukusima, etc).

Her sudden Sympathy for the successful Norwegian Prime Minister, just Yesterday (Comp. Supra), makes think ...  After all, Norwegian Fjords' Salmon is Good even for (Political) Health, sometimes !


 - Eventual "Negotiations" with the "Alternative" would be "Hard", reportedly Warned ToNight in Berlin, the German Chancellor Angie Merkel. F.ex. they asked for a "Commission on Merkel"... - "I don't shy about a Commission", "But I'd prefer to have enough Time to Debate about the Future !", she Highlighted...

 

- Tn particular, the German Chancellor reportedly promised to "Take Seriously (the) Fears, (and) Note (the) Concerns" of the People who Voted for the "Alternative", "mainly through Good Policies", as she stressed.

 

After all, arbouring a Large, Bright Smile under the Moto : "At the Center", Angie Merkel appeared, despite a Hard Fight, rather Interested by the Fact that, for the First Time, the German People gave her, not just One, but Many Choices !

 

Something that Nobody else has now.

 

While Merkel had an Opportunity to Prepare for such a New Political Landscape, already since almost 1,5 Year Earlier, (See, f.ex.: http://www.eurofora.net/newsflashes/news/germanregionalelections.html)...

 

 

(../..)
 
 
 
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People in Europe and the World expect from CoE to make a succes of its "Monitoring" for Human Rights and Democracy, despite difficulties, said Finland's President Tarja Halonen to "EuroFora" at a crucial moment for the mecanism built 15 years ago by the paneuropean organization which celebrates its 60th Anniversary in 2009.

Halonen, known as "Mother" of CoE's "Monitoring" mecanism, a long-time MEP and former Foreign Minister before becoming Finland's President, holds a long experience in the mattter, after also serving twice as CoE and EU Chairwoman in the past. That's why she is well placed to judge how CoE's "monitoring" should deal today with some crucial issues of importance both to CoE and to the EU.

The move came just a Month before a crucial, last visit to Turkey, scheduled for June, by the President of CoE''s "Monitoring" Committee, Ukranian MEP Serge Holovaty, to finalize his Report on Ankara, the CoE Member State with the longest Monitoring procedure. From its results depends its overall credibility.

This is a Test-case, because, in fact, it's in order to avoid Sanctions threatened against Turkey by a CoE's Assembly's April 1995 Resolution for grave Human Rights violations, Democracy gaps, the continuing Military Occupation in Cyprus, the unresolved Kurdish problem, Aegean differend with Greece, etc., that MEPs decided to create, for the 1st time on April 1996, a "Monitoring" proces, allegedly destinated to check, without excluding Countries who did not fulfill all CoE's standards.

In the Past, the obliged withdrawal of Greece's Military regime and of its "Civil" cover-up out of the CoE had helped bring back Democracy in 1974. But, on the contrary, since April 1996, the idea was to "monitor" Human Rights' respect while keeping most concerned Countries inside the CoE. After Turkey's oldest example, this was extended also to several former "Eastern" European Countries, even if CoE's Assembly has imposed to some of them (fex. Ukraine, Russia, etc., after Belarus, Serbia, etc) various "Sanctions", that Ankara always avoided. Curiously more succesful even than .. USA itself, (a CoE "Observer" since 1995), which has been at least threatened with sanctions some years ago..

EU-effects of CoE's Monitoring process became obvious between 2001-2008, since the "closure" of this procedure, when CoE felt that a Country had met most of its Human Rights, Democracy and Rule of Law obligations, (i.e. the "Copenhagen Criteria" for the EU), helped trigger Negotiations with the EU for "Accession" or other closer relations : This occured already before the 2004 and 2007 EU Enlargements to former "Eastern" European Countries, as well as for the commencement of "accession" negotiations with Croatia, and of "open-ended" negotiations with Turkey in 2005.

    But a stricking new development are Holovaty's recent findings that on core Human Rights issues as Torture and Freedom of Expression, Turkey, even "5 Years after" CoE closed its "Monitoring", back in 2004, inciting EU to start accession Negotiations in 2005, still presents grave problems.

    His findings are of crucial importance after a 2008 CoE Resolution called, "if need be", to "seriously consider the possibility of Re-Opening the Monitoring procedure for Turkey" : A move which might affect Ankara's controversial EU bid, since EU Accession Negotiations are based on the Hypothesis that the Candidate fullfils the "Copenhagen Criteria" (See above)..
-------------------------
    Holovaty expressed his will to check  "Matters still Outstanding" and  those that he "didn't have an opportunity to discuss" at an earlier visit this year, "in order to discuss the more complex issues in greater depth", at his forthcoming New Visit to Ankara, before the December 2009 EU Summit.  This is all based on the 2004 CoE Resolution which stresses that, CoE "will continue.. post-monitoring Dialogue with the Turkish authorities,...in addition to a 12-points list,..and on any Other Matter that might arise in connection with Turkey’s Obligations as a CoE member state".

    CoE's Resolution also asks  from Turkey "to secure the proper Implementation of Judgements, particularly in the Cyprus v. Turkey InterState case", of 2001, which concerns also the plight of many Hundreds of MISSING People. It adds Turkey's obligations to "execute" ECHR's Judgements in the Loizidou case,..and in particular adopt General Measures to avoid repetition or continuation of Violations found by the Court" to the detriment of Refugees.

    Nevertheless, Holovaty said to "EuroFora" that "MISSING" persons,"might be included" and cannot be excluded, but he has yet to examine the situation "to find out  which issues will be raised" to the Turkish Government.

    Therefore, "EuroFora" asked Halonen, as the Historic "Mother" of CoE's Monitoring mecanism, if she thought that, "whenever there are grave Human Rights Violations, as fex. "MISSING" persons, attested even by ECHR's judgements, they should be always checked by a Monitoring process. Or could they be forgotten ?"
    
     - "We (CoE) must be, at the same time, Fair, Realistic, but not in the mind that "now we have Forgotten", etc., replied to "EuroFora"'s question Halonen, speaking as a matter of general principle.

    - "When we think of those People that are suffering from the lack of Democracy, of Human Rights, and of the Rule of Law", "we should find a base on how to deal with the (Monitoring) system more rapidly"', she stressed.

    - "Sometimes it's very difficult to combine Transparency and Effectivenes together, particularly in this specific case", she went on to say. But, "I have not found a (CoE Member) Country who could be insensitive in this sens", Halonen answered concerning grave Human Rights violations attested by the ECHR.

    - "I have no ready-made answer. I have the expectations that you, in the CoE, will, step by step, find the different types of the monitoring systems."

    Also "because this is a part of the UN's Post-Conflict system, (fex. when it comes to Cyprus' MISSING persons), and it's a more Global system". So that, "If we make a succes in Europe, the others will follow", throughout the World.  "But they expect that we (Europe) are this opportunity, this Opportunity to make a Succes", Halonen concluded.

    In addition, she advised to extend CoE's Monitoring to all its 47 Member States, "because, as long as we hear that, all these monitoring systems are "OK for the neighbor, but not for me", "it's very difficult" to understand. Something which could make easier to Compare...

    Finnish MEP Jaako Laakso, former CoE Rapporteur on the Occupied Territories of Cyprus and one of the 5 Signatories of the Historic CoE's call to create the "MONITORING" mecanism since 1996, was more specific :  - "We (CoE Assembly) have to find a way for the issue of Cyprus' MISSING People to be better followed", he stressed, anouncing his intention to "speak to Mr. Holovaty" about that. "There might be also other ways", added Laakso.

    - The 2008 "Year had been a very Bad one for Turkey with regard to Human Rights in general, and Freedom of Expression in particular", denounced, meanwhile, Holovaty's preliminary Post-Monitoringh Draft Report by Holovaty, published by the CoE on April 2009.

    "Amnesty International believes that freedom of expression is not guaranteed given the various articles of the Criminal Code that restrict it. .. "For example, 1,300 Websites are said to have been closed down by the (Turkish) authorities in 2008" ! While "the new Turkish Criminal Code was used to bring a total of 1,072 proceedings between June 2005 and April 2008, and led to the conviction of 192 people", for expressing views. "Representatives of the Özgür Gündem newspaper, which specialises in Kurdish affairs, ..complained about Numerous Attacks on their Freedom of Expression ...as was everyone who advocated a settlement to the question by means other than the intervention of the army" "According to their figures, 19 Newspapers had been suspended 43 times between 4 August 2006 and 4 November 2008" !...

    Moreover, on 2008,  CoE's "Ministers adopted its 4rth Resolution on the execution of the judgments of the ECHR, ...and outstanding issues regarding 175 Judgements and decisions relating to Turkey delivered between 1996 and 2008...  concerning Deaths resulting from the excessive use of force by members of the Security forces, the failure to protect the right to life, the DIisappearance and/or death of individuals, Ill-Treatment and the Destruction of property". CoE's " Ministers urged the Turkish authorities ...to ensure that members of Security forces of all ranks can be prosecuted without administrative
authorisation" for "serious crimes". Holovaty reminded.

"Nonetheless", Holovaty heard anew of "Several cases of Violence committed last year (2008) by the (Turkish) security forces". Amnesty International speaks of Many Cases of ill-treatment and Torture in the prisons and by the police". "Including, fex."'the death of Engin Ceber, a young man of 29 who died on October 2008 as a result of the TORTURE allegedly inflicted on him by police officers, prison staff and members of the gendarmerie. He was part of a group of people arrested on September 2008 during a demonstration and Press Conference in Istanbul'. Proceedings against suspects are "on-going" in this case.

- " I therefore noted an Obvious Contradiction between the Government’s stated “zero tolerance” policy.... of Torture and other forms of ill-treatment, and the different testimonies given", denounced CoE's Rapporteur.  Turkish "authorities must make considerable efforts to guarantee that proper investigations are carried out into allegations of abuses by members of the security forces and that perpetrators are effectively punished" "In this respect, I have requested detailed Statistics on the number of Investigations, acquittals and convictions in cases involving allegations of abuse in order to show the positive impact of the measures taken to date", Holovaty said, repeating a permanently unsatisfied CoE's demand to Turkey since a Decade...

    - "The Political Crisis that shook the country in the spring of 2008 highlighted the Weaknesses of the (Turkish) Constitution", which comes from the Military regime of 1982, "and the Urgent Need of Reforms", stressed from the outset CoE's Rapporteur in 2009. In particular, "the ...Democratic functioning of state institutions, including the independence of the judicial system, are crucial", he observes.

    But, "the Electoral  system and the ways in which it is circumvented do not appear to give those elected complete Legitimacy, and tend to pervert the course of direct universal suffrage", denounces Holovaty, observing that, even 5 Years later, Turkey did not yet change the 10% nationwide Threshold for a party to take any seat, which is "far higher" than the "3%" maximum in Europe and already condemned as contrary to European Standards by the CoE.

    + Moreover, EU Parliament's 2009 Report on Turkey, drafted by Dutch MEP Ria Oomen-Ruijten and adopted in Strasbourg on March, expresses "Concern over the Failure of the (Turkish) Judiciary to prosecute cases of Torture and Ill-treatment, the Number of which is Growing". EU also "is concerned about continuing Hostility and Violence against Minorities" in Turkey. It also "calls on the Turkish Government to launch, as a matter of Priority, a Political Initiatve favouring a lasting Settlement of the Kurdish issue, (while "condemning violence.. and terrorist groups"). EU "regrets that No progress has been made on establishing full, systematic Civilian suprevisory functions over the (Turkish) Military".

    The final results of Holovaty's 2nd and last visit to Turkley will be known later this year, and, at any case, before EU's December 2009 Summit.

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